Download Tools, Techniques and Protocols for Monitoring Environmental Contaminants Ebook PDF

Tools, Techniques and Protocols for Monitoring Environmental Contaminants

Tools, Techniques and Protocols for Monitoring Environmental Contaminants
A Book

by Satinder Kaur Brar,Krishnamoorthy Hegde,Vinayak Laxman Pachapur

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2019-06-04
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN : 012814680X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Tools, Techniques and Protocols for Monitoring Environmental Contaminants describes information on the strategic integration of available monitoring methods with molecular techniques, with a focus on omics (DNA, RNA and protein based) and molecular imprinted polymer and nanomaterial based advanced biosensors for environmental applications. It discusses the most commonly practiced analytic techniques, such as HPLC, MS, GCMS and traditional biosensors, giving an overview of the benefits of advanced biosensors over commonly practiced methods in the rapid and reliable assessment of environmental contaminants. As environmental contaminants have become one of the serious concerns in terms of their rapid growth and monitoring in the environment, which is often limited due to costly and laborious methods, this book provides a comprehensive update on their removal, the challenges they create for environmental regulatory agencies, and their diverse effects on terrestrial and aquatic environments. Provides methods for assessing and monitoring environmental contaminants Includes recent advancement in molecular techniques Outlines rapid environmental monitoring methods Explains the use of biosensors for environmental monitoring Reviews monitoring methods beyond conventional analytic techniques

Nanosensor Technologies for Environmental Monitoring

Nanosensor Technologies for Environmental Monitoring
A Book

by Inamuddin,Abdullah M. Asiri

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-07-15
  • Pages : 529
  • ISBN : 303045116X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Advanced materials and nanotechnology is a promising, emerging field involving the use of nanoparticles to facilitate the detection of various physical and chemical parameters, including temperature, humidity, pH, metal ion, anion, small organic or inorganic molecules, gases, and biomolecules responsible for environmental issues that can lead to diseases like cancer, diabetes, osteoarthritis, bacterial infections, and brain, retinal, and cardiovascular diseases. By monitoring environmental samples and detecting these environmental issues, advanced nanotechnology in this type of sensory technology is able to improve daily quality of life. Although these sensors are commercially available for the detection of monovalent cations, anions, gases, volatile organic molecules, heavy metal ions, and toxic metal ions, many existing models require significant power and lack advanced technology for more quality selectivity and sensitivity. There is room in these sensors to optimize their selectivity, reversibility, on/off ratio, response time, and their environmental stability in real-world operating conditions. This book explores the methods for the development and design of environmentally-friendly, simple, reliable, and cost effective electrochemical nanosensors using powerful nanostructured materials. More specifically, it highlights the use of various electrochemical-based biosensor sensors involved in the detection of monovalent cations, anions, gases, volatile organic molecules, heavy metal ions, and toxic metal ions, with the ultimate goal of seeing these technologies reach market.

Monitoring Environmental Contaminants

Monitoring Environmental Contaminants
A Book

by Steven Johnson

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2020-12-10
  • Pages : 150
  • ISBN : 0444643362
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

While existing approaches to monitoring environmental contaminants tend to focus on a small suite of contaminant types and often involve monitoring at fixed points and at fixed times, Monitoring Environmental Contaminants focuses on a wide range of new technologies and approaches available for monitoring chemical and biological contaminants in air, water, soil and food. These new methods allow the ability to monitor a wider range of contaminants at much greater and temporal resolutions. Adoption of these methods could result in a change in our understanding of how humans and ecosystems are exposed to contaminants in different environmental media. This volume in the Environmental Contaminants Series provides an overview of a wide range of monitoring approaches ranging from citizen science networks to the use of robotics and sensor networks. Monitoring Environmental Contaminants describes challenges in the adoption of some of these new approaches and methods for dealing with these challenges such as the use of mining techniques for large data. The case studies within will provide a thorough illustration for researchers, academics, and scientists involved in ecology and environmental sciences. Brings together chapters from a wide range of research in ecology and the environmental sciences Utilizes an easily understandable style that can be absorbed by a wide audience Uses case studies to illuminate the application of selected novel contamination monitoring approaches

Technical Assistance Directory

Technical Assistance Directory
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1991
  • Pages : 67
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Statistical Methods for Environmental Pollution Monitoring

Statistical Methods for Environmental Pollution Monitoring
A Book

by Richard O. Gilbert

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 1987-02-15
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN : 9780471288787
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This book discusses a broad range of statistical design and analysis methods that are particularly well suited to pollution data. It explains key statistical techniques in easy-to-comprehend terms and uses practical examples, exercises, and case studies to illustrate procedures. Dr. Gilbert begins by discussing a space-time framework for sampling pollutants. He then shows how to use statistical sample survey methods to estimate average and total amounts of pollutants in the environment, and how to determine the number of field samples and measurements to collect for this purpose. Then a broad range of statistical analysis methods are described and illustrated. These include: * determining the number of samples needed to find hot spots * analyzing pollution data that are lognormally distributed * testing for trends over time or space * estimating the magnitude of trends * comparing pollution data from two or more populations New areas discussed in this sourcebook include statistical techniques for data that are correlated, reported as less than the measurement detection limit, or obtained from field-composited samples. Nonparametric statistical analysis methods are emphasized since parametric procedures are often not appropriate for pollution data. This book also provides an illustrated comprehensive computer code for nonparametric trend detection and estimation analyses as well as nineteen statistical tables to permit easy application of the discussed statistical techniques. In addition, many publications are cited that deal with the design of pollution studies and the statistical analysis of pollution data. This sourcebook will be a useful tool for applied statisticians, ecologists, radioecologists, hydrologists, biologists, environmental engineers, and other professionals who deal with the collection, analysis, and interpretation of pollution in air, water, and soil.

Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock

Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock
A Book

by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Committee on Geological and Geotechnical Engineering,Committee on Subsurface Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2021-01-29
  • Pages : 176
  • ISBN : 0309373727
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Fractured rock is the host or foundation for innumerable engineered structures related to energy, water, waste, and transportation. Characterizing, modeling, and monitoring fractured rock sites is critical to the functioning of those infrastructure, as well as to optimizing resource recovery and contaminant management. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock examines the state of practice and state of art in the characterization of fractured rock and the chemical and biological processes related to subsurface contaminant fate and transport. This report examines new developments, knowledge, and approaches to engineering at fractured rock sites since the publication of the 1996 National Research Council report Rock Fractures and Fluid Flow: Contemporary Understanding and Fluid Flow. Fundamental understanding of the physical nature of fractured rock has changed little since 1996, but many new characterization tools have been developed, and there is now greater appreciation for the importance of chemical and biological processes that can occur in the fractured rock environment. The findings of Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock can be applied to all types of engineered infrastructure, but especially to engineered repositories for buried or stored waste and to fractured rock sites that have been contaminated as a result of past disposal or other practices. The recommendations of this report are intended to help the practitioner, researcher, and decision maker take a more interdisciplinary approach to engineering in the fractured rock environment. This report describes how existing tools-some only recently developed-can be used to increase the accuracy and reliability of engineering design and management given the interacting forces of nature. With an interdisciplinary approach, it is possible to conceptualize and model the fractured rock environment with acceptable levels of uncertainty and reliability, and to design systems that maximize remediation and long-term performance. Better scientific understanding could inform regulations, policies, and implementation guidelines related to infrastructure development and operations. The recommendations for research and applications to enhance practice of this book make it a valuable resource for students and practitioners in this field.

Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
A Book

by George W. Ware

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 1461229642
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

International concern in scientific, industrial, and governmental communi ties over traces of xenobiotics in foods and in both abiotic and biotic en vironments has justified the present triumvirate of specialized publications in this field: comprehensive reviews, rapidly published research papers and progress reports, and archival documentations. These three international publications are integrated and scheduled to provide the coherency essential for nonduplicative and current progress in a field as dynamic and complex as environmental contamination and toxicology. This series is reserved ex clusively for the diversified literature on "toxic" chemicals in our food, our feeds, our homes, recreational and working surroundings, our domestic an imals, our wildlife and ourselves. Tremendous efforts worldwide have been mobilized to evaluate the nature, presence, magnitude, fate, and toxicology of the chemicals loosed upon the earth. Among the sequelae of this broad new emphasis is an undeniable need for an articulated set of authoritative publications, where one can find the latest important world literature pro duced by these emerging areas of science together with documentation of pertinent ancillary legislation. Research directors and legislative or administrative advisers do not have the time to scan the escalating number of technical publications that may contain articles important to current responsibility. Rather, these individuals need the background provided by detailed reviews and the assurance that the latest information is made available to them, all with minimal literature searching.

Sensor Technologies

Sensor Technologies
Healthcare, Wellness and Environmental Applications

by Michael J. McGrath,Cliodhna Ni Scanaill

  • Publisher : Apress
  • Release : 2013-12-17
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN : 1430260130
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Sensor Technologies: Healthcare, Wellness and Environmental Applications explores the key aspects of sensor technologies, covering wired, wireless, and discrete sensors for the specific application domains of healthcare, wellness and environmental sensing. It discusses the social, regulatory, and design considerations specific to these domains. The book provides an application-based approach using real-world examples to illustrate the application of sensor technologies in a practical and experiential manner. The book guides the reader from the formulation of the research question, through the design and validation process, to the deployment and management phase of sensor applications. The processes and examples used in the book are primarily based on research carried out by Intel or joint academic research programs. “Sensor Technologies: Healthcare, Wellness and Environmental Applications provides an extensive overview of sensing technologies and their applications in healthcare, wellness, and environmental monitoring. From sensor hardware to system applications and case studies, this book gives readers an in-depth understanding of the technologies and how they can be applied. I would highly recommend it to students or researchers who are interested in wireless sensing technologies and the associated applications.” Dr. Benny Lo Lecturer, The Hamlyn Centre, Imperial College of London “This timely addition to the literature on sensors covers the broad complexity of sensing, sensor types, and the vast range of existing and emerging applications in a very clearly written and accessible manner. It is particularly good at capturing the exciting possibilities that will occur as sensor networks merge with cloud-based ‘big data’ analytics to provide a host of new applications that will impact directly on the individual in ways we cannot fully predict at present. It really brings this home through the use of carefully chosen case studies that bring the overwhelming concept of 'big data' down to the personal level of individual life and health.” Dermot Diamond Director, National Centre for Sensor Research, Principal Investigator, CLARITY Centre for Sensor Web Technologies, Dublin City University "Sensor Technologies: Healthcare, Wellness and Environmental Applications takes the reader on an end-to-end journey of sensor technologies, covering the fundamentals from an engineering perspective, introducing how the data gleaned can be both processed and visualized, in addition to offering exemplar case studies in a number of application domains. It is a must-read for those studying any undergraduate course that involves sensor technologies. It also provides a thorough foundation for those involved in the research and development of applied sensor systems. I highly recommend it to any engineer who wishes to broaden their knowledge in this area!" Chris Nugent Professor of Biomedical Engineering, University of Ulster What you’ll learnThe relevant sensing approaches and the hardware and software components required to capture and interpret sensor data. The importance of regulations governing medical devices. A design methodology for developing and deploying successful home- and community-based technologies, supported by relevant case studies. Health, wellness, and environmental sensing applications and how they work. The challenges and future directions of sensing in these domains. Who this book is for Sensor Technologies: Healthcare, Wellness and Environmental Applications is targeted at clinical and technical researchers, engineers, and students who want to understand the current state of the art in sensor applications in these domains. The reader gains a full awareness of the key technical and non-technical challenges that must be addressed in the development of successful end-to-end sensor applications. Real-world examples help give the reader practical insights into the successful development, deployment, and management of sensor applications. The reader will also develop an understanding of the personal, social, and ethical impact of sensor applications, now and in the future. Table of ContentsChapter One: Introduction Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the key challenges and drivers for sensor application development. The reader should also understand how sensor technologies can play a role in addressing some of the key challenges facing global society in the short to medium term. 1. Book overview 2. Drivers for Sensor Applications (Infrastructure Growth in Developing Countries, Advances in Energy Harvesting, New Applications, Cost reduction, Real-time monitoring of situations to avoid unplanned downtime, Security (personal and national), the internet of things). 3. Challenges for Sensor Applications (Power, Efficient Operation in Harsh Environments, Number of Deployable Nodes, Safety and Regulations, High Cost of Installation, Security and Reliability, sensor management) 4. Global Megatrends and the opportunities for sensing technologies o Water and Food Constraints o Aging Demographics o Public Health o Pandemics o Security Chapter 2: Sensing and Sensor Fundamentals Chapter Goal: Reader should understand existing sensor technologies, which can be used in healthcare, wellness, and environmental domains. They should also understand the role of smart sensors and smart phones as mobile sensing platforms and aggregators. 1. Sensing Modalities (Mechanical, MEMS, Optical, ISFET, μTAS) 2. Sensing Domains (Air, Water, Noise, Bacterial, Chemical, Kinematic, DNA, Physiological) 3. Functional Characterisation of Sensors o Communication methods – discrete, wired, wireless o Smart Sensors and Sensor Platforms § MSP430 (SHIMMER and telosB motes) § ATmega § PIC 4. Smart Phones as mobile sensor platforms 5. Selecting and specifying sensors Chapter 3 Key Sensor Technology Components – Hardware and Software Overview Chapter Goal: Reader should have a high level understanding of the key hardware and software components, which are necessary for the development of sensors systems and why technologies are selected for specific applications. 1. Overview – Sensor systems 2. MCU’s (TI MSP430, ATmega, PIC) a. ADCs b. Interrupts c. Real-time Clocks 3. Sensor Interfaces a. Digital b. Analog c. I2C 4. Communications – wired and wireless interfaces RS232/485, USB, Ethernet, FieldbusProprietary Short Range Wireless Protocols (e.g. ANT, BodyLAN, Sensium)Standard Short Range Protocols i. IEEE 802.15.6 ii. Bluetooth/Smart Bluetooth iii. 802.15.4 iv. UWB Medium Range i. Wi-Fi 5. Data storage (EEPROM, sd card, data forwarding) 6. Power management and Energy Harvesting 7. Operating Systems and Software Development Environments (SDK’s) Chapter 4 Sensor Network Architectures Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the various approaches to the design of sensor network architectures; scaling from body worn systems, to ambient sensing, to city-scale deployments. The reader should also understand the advantages and disadvantages of current and evolving sensor network architectures. 1. Sensor network architectures o Discrete Sensor o Sensor to aggregator o PAN/WPAN/smart clothing o Pervasive/Ambient sensor

Environmental Contamination in Antarctica

Environmental Contamination in Antarctica
A Challenge to Analytical Chemistry

by S. Caroli,P. Cescon,D.W.H. Walton

  • Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
  • Release : 2001-07-19
  • Pages : 420
  • ISBN : 9780080531076
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This thought-provoking and ambitious volume surveys the causes and extent of environmental contamination in Antarctica, and looks critically at future prospects. It highlights the key role that modern techniques of analytical chemistry play in achieving reliable empirical data in this field and their impact on shaping legal provisions. Written by prominent scientists and experts in Antarctic sciences, this work gives an overview of the studies undertaken by countries to assess the impact of pollution phenomena on the uniquely clean environment of Antarctica. Empirical studies and regulatory issues are evaluated in context with the goal of providing a model approach to more polluted areas of the world.

Environmental Management

Environmental Management
Science and Engineering for Industry

by I.V Murali Krishna,Valli Manickam

  • Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Release : 2017-01-23
  • Pages : 664
  • ISBN : 012811990X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Environmental Management: Science and Engineering for Industry consists of 18 chapters, starting with a discussion of International Environmental Laws and crucial environmental management tools, including lifecycle, environmental impact, and environmental risk assessments. This is followed by a frank discussion of environmental control and abatement technologies for water, wastewater, soil, and air pollution. In addition, this book also tackles Hazardous Waste Management and the landfill technologies available for the disposal of hazardous wastes. As managing environmental projects is a complex task with vast amounts of data, an array of regulations, and alternative engineering control strategies designed to minimize pollution and maximize the effect of an environmental program, this book helps readers further understand and plan for this process. Contains the latest methods for Identifying, abating, or eliminating pollutants from air, water, and land Presents up-to-date coverage on environmental management tools, such as risk assessment, energy management and auditing, environmental accounting, and impact assessments Includes methods for collecting and synthesizing data derived from environmental assessments

Contaminants in the Subsurface

Contaminants in the Subsurface
Source Zone Assessment and Remediation

by National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Water Science and Technology Board,Committee on Source Removal of Contaminants in the Subsurface

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2005-04-23
  • Pages : 370
  • ISBN : 030909447X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

At hundreds of thousands of commercial, industrial, and military sites across the country, subsurface materials including groundwater are contaminated with chemical waste. The last decade has seen growing interest in using aggressive source remediation technologies to remove contaminants from the subsurface, but there is limited understanding of (1) the effectiveness of these technologies and (2) the overall effect of mass removal on groundwater quality. This report reviews the suite of technologies available for source remediation and their ability to reach a variety of cleanup goals, from meeting regulatory standards for groundwater to reducing costs. The report proposes elements of a protocol for accomplishing source remediation that should enable project managers to decide whether and how to pursue source remediation at their sites.

Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination

Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination
A Book

by Maria C. Hernandez Soriano

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2014-03-26
  • Pages : 920
  • ISBN : 953511235X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Soil is an irreplaceable resource that sustains life on the planet, challenged by food and energy demands of an increasing population. Therefore, soil contamination constitutes a critical issue to be addressed if we are to secure the life quality of present and future generations. Integrated efforts from researchers and policy makers are required to develop sound risk assessment procedures, remediation strategies and sustainable soil management policies. Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination provides a wide depiction of current research in soil contamination and risk assessment, encompassing reviews and case studies on soil pollution by heavy metals and organic pollutants. The book introduces several innovative approaches for soil remediation and risk assessment, including advances in phytoremediation and implementation of metabolomics in soil sciences.

Use of Aquatic Invertebrates as Tools for Monitoring of Environmental Hazards

Use of Aquatic Invertebrates as Tools for Monitoring of Environmental Hazards
Symposium 2./3. November 1993

by Werner E. G. Müller

  • Publisher : Gustav Fischer
  • Release : 1994
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

"The symposium "Marine Organisms as Tools for the Assessment of Pollution and as Source for Bioactive Compounds" (Mainz, November 2./3., 1993) presented a synopsis of new approaches to monitor environmental hazards using a variety of animals as indicator systems" -- Cover.

Water Quality Assessments

Water Quality Assessments
A guide to the use of biota, sediments and water in environmental monitoring, Second Edition

by Deborah V Chapman

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 1996-08-22
  • Pages : 648
  • ISBN : 0419215905
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This guidebook, now thoroughly updated and revised in its second edition, gives comprehensive advice on the designing and setting up of monitoring programmes for the purpose of providing valid data for water quality assessments in all types of freshwater bodies. It is clearly and concisely written in order to provide the essential information for all agencies and individuals responsible for the water quality.

Passive Sampling Techniques in Environmental Monitoring

Passive Sampling Techniques in Environmental Monitoring
A Book

by Richard Greenwood,Graham Mills,Bran Vrana

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2007-07-03
  • Pages : 486
  • ISBN : 9780080489506
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Monitoring pollutants in air, soil and water is a routine requirement in the workplace, and in the wider environment. Passive samplers can provide a representative picture of levels of pollutants over a period of time from days to months by measuring the average concentrations to which they have been exposed. Air monitors are widely used, for instance to measure the exposure of workers to volatile compounds, but also for monitoring the fate of pollutants in the atmosphere. Passive sampling devices are now becomining increasingly used to monitor pollutants in rivers, coastal waters and ground water where contamination results from sources such as domestic and industrial discharges, and the use of agrochemicals. Passive Sampling Techniques in Environmental Monitoring provides a timely collection of information on a set of techniques that help monitor the quality of air, surface and ground waters. Passive sampling can provide an inexpensive means of obtaining a representative picture of quality over a period of time, even where levels of pollutants fluctuate due to discontinuous discharges or seasonal application of chemicals such as pesticides. Recent changes in legislation have increased the pressure to obtain better information than that provided by classical infrequent spot sampling. Brought together in one source, this book looks at the performance of a range of devices for the passive sampling of metals, and of non-polar and polar organic chemicals in air and in water. The strengths and weaknesses and the range of applicability of the technology are considered. * Comprehensive review of passive sampling - covering air, water and majority of available technologies in one volume * Chapters written by international specialist experts * Covers theory and applications, providing background information and guidelines for use in the field

ASTM Standards on Environmental Sampling

ASTM Standards on Environmental Sampling
A Book

by American Society for Testing Materials

  • Publisher : Astm International
  • Release : 1997
  • Pages : 1010
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Biocontamination Control for Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare

Biocontamination Control for Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare
A Book

by Tim Sandle

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-11-30
  • Pages : 374
  • ISBN : 0128149124
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Biocontamination Control for Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare outlines a biocontamination strategy that tracks bio-burden control and reduction at each transition in classified areas of a facility. This key part of controlling risk escalation can lead to the contamination of medicinal products, hence necessary tracking precautions are essential. Regulatory authorities have challenged pharmaceutical companies, healthcare providers, and those in manufacturing practice to adopt a holistic approach to contamination control. New technologies are needed to introduce barriers between personnel and the environment, and to provide a rapid and more accurate assessment of risk. This book offers guidance on building a complete biocontamination strategy. Provides the information necessary for a facility to build a complete biocontamination strategy Helps facilities understand the main biocontamination risks to medicinal products Assists the reader in navigating regulatory requirements Provides insight into developing an environmental monitoring program Covers the types of rapid microbiological monitoring methods now available, as well as current legislation

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Trace Elements

Trace Elements
Human Health and Environment

by Hosam El-Din M. Saleh,Eithar El-Adham

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2018-09-05
  • Pages : 186
  • ISBN : 1789236703
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Over the last few years, we have witnessed increasing efforts dedicated to the scientific investigation and characteristics of trace elements. Especially in the field of human and animal nutrition, trace elements display a considerably attractive issue for research because they play an essential role in the nutrition of both animals and humans. Aquatic environments contaminated with trace elements are an emerging research area due to the toxicity, abundance, and environmental persistence of trace elements. Accumulation of heavy metals as a class of trace elements in various environments, and the subsequent transition of these elements into the food and feed chain, severely affects human health. The determination of type and concentration of trace elements is regarded as the first and most important step to follow the mechanisms controlling the dispersal and accumulation of trace elements. Element speciation in different media (water, soil, food, plants, coal, biological matter, food, and fodder) is pivotal to assess an element's toxicity, bioavailability, environmental mobility, and biogeochemical performance. Recently, new analytical techniques have been developed, which greatly simplified the quantitation of many trace elements and considerably extended their detection range. In this context, the development of reproducible and accurate techniques for trace element analysis in different media using spectroscopic instrumentation is continuously updated.

Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments

Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments
Processes, Tools, and Applications

by National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Water Science and Technology Board,Committee on Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2003-05-03
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN : 0309086256
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Bioavailability refers to the extent to which humans and ecological receptors are exposed to contaminants in soil or sediment. The concept of bioavailability has recently piqued the interest of the hazardous waste industry as an important consideration in deciding how much waste to clean up. The rationale is that if contaminants in soil and sediment are not bioavailable, then more contaminant mass can be left in place without creating additional risk. A new NRC report notes that the potential for the consideration of bioavailability to influence decision-making is greatest where certain chemical, environmental, and regulatory factors align. The current use of bioavailability in risk assessment and hazardous waste cleanup regulations is demystified, and acceptable tools and models for bioavailability assessment are discussed and ranked according to seven criteria. Finally, the intimate link between bioavailability and bioremediation is explored. The report concludes with suggestions for moving bioavailability forward in the regulatory arena for both soil and sediment cleanup.