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Torrefaction of Biomass for Energy Applications

Torrefaction of Biomass for Energy Applications
From Fundamentals to Industrial Scale

by Leonel JR Nunes,Joao Carlos De Oliveira Matias,Joao Paulo Da Silva Catalao

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2017-11-21
  • Pages : 254
  • ISBN : 0128096977
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Torrefaction of Biomass for Energy Applications: From Fundamentals to Industrial Scale explores the processes, technology, end-use, and economics involved in torrefaction at the industrial scale for heat and power generation. Its authors combine their industry experience with their academic expertise to provide a thorough overview of the topic. Starting at feedstock pretreatment, followed by torrefaction processes, the book includes plant design and operation, safety aspects, and case studies focusing on the needs and challenges of the industrial scale. Commercially available technologies are examined and compared, and their economical evaluation and life cycle assessment are covered as well. Attention is also given to non-woody feedstock, alternative applications, derived fuels, recent advances, and expected future developments. For its practical approach, this book is ideal for professionals in the biomass industry, including those in heat and power generation. It is also a useful reference for researchers and graduate students in the area of biomass and biofuels, and for decision makers, policy makers, and analysts in the energy field. Compares efficiency and performance of different commercially available technologies from the practical aspects of daily operation in an industrial scale plant Presents a cost analysis of the production, logistics, and storage of torrefied biomass Includes case studies addressing challenges that may occur in the daily operation in an industrial scale plant Covers other associated technologies, the densification of torrefied biomass, and non-woody feedstock

Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction

Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction
For Biofuels and Value-Added Products

by Stephen Gent,Michael Twedt,Christina Gerometta,Evan Almberg

  • Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Release : 2017-06-16
  • Pages : 224
  • ISBN : 0128095172
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction: For Biofuels and Value-Added Products presents a firm foundation of torrefaction technologies and their economic and sustainability aspects. It offers a theoretical background in the underlying principles of torrefaction reactions, including thermodynamics, chemical reactions, process modeling, end-products, and value-added products such as biochar and torr-gas. It also provides an overview of best practices in torrefaction systems, reactor design and scale-up, and compares torrefaction with other thermochemical processing technologies. The authors discuss feedstock availability for a variety of biomass types, such as agricultural residues, woody residues, energy crops and municipal solid waste. They also examine logistics and markets for torrefied products, which includes their use in co-firing and combined heat and power generation, as well as emissions and other environmental aspects. This balanced and thorough approach to the subject matter makes this an excellent resource for engineers, researchers, and graduate students in the field of biomass conversion, especially with background in energy engineering, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, environmental engineering, biological engineering, and agriculture. Offers a comprehensive overview of torrefaction, balancing theoretical and applied perspectives of torrefaction technologies from a holistic perspective Examines economic and sustainability aspects, including logistics, markets, feedstock, and emissions Presents a variety of relevant, real-world examples that underscore the production and utilization of torrefied material Offers a balanced and thorough approach to the subject, making it an excellent resource for engineers, researchers, and graduate students in the field of biomass conversion

Biomass in Small-Scale Energy Applications

Biomass in Small-Scale Energy Applications
Theory and Practice

by Mateusz Szubel,Mariusz Filipowicz

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2019-10-11
  • Pages : 344
  • ISBN : 1000682854
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass in Small-Scale Energy Applications: Theory and Practice presents the current trends in the development of selected biomass-based technologies for distributed energy generation. It describes the methodology, experimental results, and computer simulations with a focus on pilot systems and devices crucial in multiple applications with related environmental/economic issues. It describes which stages of design, development, and application of advanced biomass-based energy devices are critical in order for a given technology to be successful. It includes both technical/practical information and theoretical background related to combustion kinetics, thermodynamics in energy systems, and properties of selected types of biomass, as well as case studies.

Gasification for Low-grade Feedstock

Gasification for Low-grade Feedstock
A Book

by Yongseung Yun

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2018-07-11
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN : 1789232880
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Most coveted energy forms nowadays are gas in nature and electricity due to their environmental cleanness and convenience. Recently, gasification market trend is starting to switch to low-grade feedstock such as biomass, wastes, and low-rank coal that are still not properly utilized. In this sense, the most promising area of development in gasification field lies in low-grade feedstock that should be converted to more user-friendly gas or electricity form in utilization. This book tried to shed light on the works on gasification from many parts of the world and thus can feel the technology status and the areas of interest regarding gasification for low-grade feedstock.

Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction

Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction
Practical Design and Theory

by Prabir Basu

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2013-07-18
  • Pages : 548
  • ISBN : 0123965438
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass is the most widely used non-fossil fuel in the world. Biomass resources show a considerable potential in the long-term given the increasing proliferation of dedicated energy crops for biofuels. The second edition of Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis is enhanced with new topics, such as torrefaction and cofiring, making it a versatile resource that not only explains the basic principles of energy conversion systems, but also provides valuable insight into the design of biomass conversion systems. This book will allow professionals, such as engineers, scientists, and operating personnel of biomass gasification, pyrolysis or torrefaction plants, to gain a better comprehension of the basics of biomass conversion. The author provides many worked out design problems, step-by-step design procedures and real data on commercially operating systems. With a dedicated focus on the design, analysis, and operational aspects of biomass gasification, pyrolysis, and torrefaction, Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction, Second Edition offers comprehensive coverage of biomass in its gas, liquid, and solid states in a single easy-to-access source. Contains new and updated step-by-step process flow diagrams, design data and conversion charts, and numerical examples with solutions Includes chapters dedicated to evolving torrefaction technologies, practicing option of biomass cofiring, and biomass conversion economics Expanded coverage of syngas and other Fischer-Tropsch alternatives Spotlights advanced processes such as supercritical water gasification and torrefaction of biomass. Provides available research results in an easy-to-use design methodology

Technologies for Converting Biomass to Useful Energy

Technologies for Converting Biomass to Useful Energy
Combustion, Gasification, Pyrolysis, Torrefaction and Fermentation

by Erik Dahlquist

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2013-04-16
  • Pages : 520
  • ISBN : 0203120264
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Officially, the use of biomass for energy meets only 10-13% of the total global energy demand of 140 000 TWh per year. Still, thirty years ago the official figure was zero, as only traded biomass was included. While the actual production of biomass is in the range of 270 000 TWh per year, most of this is not used for energy purposes, and mostly it

Pretreatment of Biomass

Pretreatment of Biomass
Processes and Technologies

by Ashok Pandey,Sangeeta Negi,Parmeswaran Binod,Christian Larroche

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2014-09-18
  • Pages : 272
  • ISBN : 0128003960
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Pretreatment of Biomass provides general information, basic data, and knowledge on one of the most promising renewable energy sources—biomass for their pretreatment—which is one of the most essential and critical aspects of biomass-based processes development. The quest to make the environment greener, less polluted, and less hazardous has led to the concept of biorefineries for developing bio-based processes and products using biomass as a feedstock. Each kind of biomass requires some kind of pretreatment to make it suitable for bioprocess. This book provides state-of-art information on the methods currently available for this. This book provides data-based scientific information on the most advanced and innovative pretreatment of lignocellulosic and algal biomass for further processing. Pretreatment of biomass is considered one of the most expensive steps in the overall processing in a biomass-to-biofuel program. With the strong advancement in developing lignocellulose biomass- and algal biomass-based biorefineries, global focus has been on developing pretreatment methods and technologies that are technically and economically feasible. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in methods used for the pretreatment of biomass. An entire section is devoted to the methods and technologies of algal biomass due to the increasing global attention of its use. Provides information on the most advanced and innovative pretreatament processes and technologies for biomass Covers information on lignocellulosic and algal biomass to work on the principles of biorefinery Useful for researchers intending to study scale-up Provides information on integration of processes and technologies for the pretreatment of biomass

Introduction to Biomass Energy Conversions

Introduction to Biomass Energy Conversions
A Book

by Sergio Capareda

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2013-07-09
  • Pages : 645
  • ISBN : 1466513330
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The potential that biomass energy has to supplement traditional fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions has put it front and center in the plan to replace fossil-based fuels with renewable fuels. While much has been written about biomass conversions, no single textbook contains all the information needed to teach a biomass conversion course—until now. Introduction to Biomass Energy Conversions presents a comprehensive review of biomass resources available for conversion into heat, power, and biofuels. The textbook covers biomass characterization and discusses facilities, equipment, and standards (e.g. ASTM or NREL) used for analysis. It examines the range of biomass resources available for conversion and presents traditional biomass conversion processes along with extensive biomass characterization data tables, illustrations, and graphical presentations of the various biomass energy conversion processes. The author also describes how to set up a laboratory for biomass energy conversion, and presents economics and sustainability issues. Loaded with real-world examples, the text includes numerous worked examples and problems in each chapter. No one knows what the price of oil will be next year or in future decades. It is governed by many factors other than supply and demand (politics, wars, etc.), however, whatever the future of energy is, bio-fuels will play an important role. This technical guide prepares students for managing bio-refineries, no matter what type of bio-fuel is produced. It also provides practicing engineers with a resource for starting a small bio-fuel business.

Biomass to Energy Conversion Technologies

Biomass to Energy Conversion Technologies
The Road to Commercialization

by Pratima Bajpai

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2019-10-22
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN : 0128184019
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass to Energy Conversion Technologies: The Road to Commercialization examines biomass production, biomass types, properties and characterization, and energy conversion technologies with an emphasis on the production of a gaseous fuel to supplement the gas derived from the landfilling of organic wastes (landfill gas) and used in gas engines to produce electricity. The book discusses the integration of both fermentation and anaerobic digestion in a biorefinery concept that allows the production of ethanol—along with biogas—to be used to produce heat and electricity, thus improving overall energy balance. Included case studies based on worldwide projects discuss both risks and challenges. The main studies on the combination of both bioethanol and biogas production processes are reviewed and the strength and weakness of the integrated treatment for industrial application are highlighted. The book also considers gasification technologies and their potential for biomass gasification and lists the advantages and disadvantages of using of biomass as a source of energy, the path of commercialization of the various processes, energy related environmental issues. Highlights commercialization and technological risks Discusses challenges, limitations and future prospects of third- and fourth generation biofuels Includes integration of both fermentation and anaerobic digestion in a biorefinery concept Discusses energy related environment issues (Greenhouse effect, acid rain, air pollution)

Biomass Preprocessing and Pretreatments for Production of Biofuels

Biomass Preprocessing and Pretreatments for Production of Biofuels
Mechanical, Chemical and Thermal Methods

by Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-07-26
  • Pages : 458
  • ISBN : 1498765483
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Engineering the physical, chemical, and energy properties of lignocellulosic biomass is important to produce high-quality consistent feedstocks with reduced variability for biofuels production. The emphasis of this book will be the beneficial impacts that mechanical, chemical, and thermal preprocessing methods can have on lignocellulosic biomass quality attributes or specifications for solid and liquid biofuels and biopower production technologies. "Preprocessing" refers to treatments that can occur at a distance from conversion and result in an intermediate with added value, with improved conversion performance and efficiency. This book explores the effects of mechanical, chemical, and thermal preprocessing methods on lignocellulosic biomass physical properties and chemical composition and their suitability for biofuels production. For example, biomass mechanical preprocessing methods like size reduction (which impacts the particle size and distribution) and densification (density and size and shape) are important for feedstocks to meet the quality requirements for both biochemical and thermochemical conversion methods like enzymatic conversion, gasification, and pyrolysis process. Thermal preprocessing methods like drying, deep drying, torrefaction, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and hydrothermal liquefaction effect feedstock's proximate, ultimate and energy property, making biomass suitable for both solid and liquid fuel production. Chemical preprocessing which includes washing, leaching, acid, alkali, and ammonia fiber explosion that can enable biochemical composition, such as modification of lignin and hemicellulose, and impacts the enzymatic conversion application for liquid fuels production. This book also explores the integration of these preprocessing technologies to achieve desired lignocellulosic biomass quality attributes for biofuels production.

Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source for the Future

Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source for the Future
Fundamentals of Conversion Processes

by Wiebren de Jong,J. Ruud van Ommen

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2014-11-03
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN : 1118304918
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Focusing on the conversion of biomass into gas or liquid fuels the book covers physical pre-treatment technologies, thermal, chemical and biochemical conversion technologies • Details the latest biomass characterization techniques • Explains the biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes • Discusses the development of integrated biorefineries, which are similar to petroleum refineries in concept, covering such topics as reactor configurations and downstream processing • Describes how to mitigate the environmental risks when using biomass as fuel • Includes many problems, small projects, sample calculations and industrial application examples

Biorefinery

Biorefinery
From Biomass to Chemicals and Fuels

by Michele Aresta,Angela Dibenedetto,Franck Dumeignil

  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter
  • Release : 2012-08-31
  • Pages : 456
  • ISBN : 311026028X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides an introduction to the basic science and technologies for the conversion of biomass (terrestrial and aquatic) into chemicals and fuels, as well as an overview of innovations in the field. The entire value chain for converting raw materials into platform molecules and their transformation into final products are presented in detail. Both cellulosic and oleaginous biomass are considered. The book contains contributions by both academic scientists and industrial technologists so that each topic combines state-of-the-art scientific knowledge with innovative technologies relevant to chemical industries.

Biofuels

Biofuels
Meeting the Energy and Environmental Challenges of the Transportation Sector

by Daniel Ballerini

  • Publisher : Editions TECHNIP
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 355
  • ISBN : 9782710809838
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Changes in the world energy context, the increasing awareness of the environmental stakes and the development of research on the production of second and third generation biofuels revealed a clear need to write a new book which updates and complements all technical, financial and environmental aspects of Les Biocarburants—État des lieux, perspectives et enjeux du développement (Biofuels—Current status, outlook and development stakes) published in 2006. This book provides a detailed state of the art of the first generation biofuel production technologies. It describes the new «second generation» pathways which use lignocellulosic biomass as raw material and are starting to find industrial applications, thereby reducing the competition between the food resource and the use of agricultural materials for energy purposes. It also provides a technical update on the algaeto-energy pathway (third generation) and the production of methane and hydrogen by biochemical pathways. The book arrives at exactly the right time to renew the interest in biofuels, including for air transport, and provide an insight on the technological research and development axes currently being investigated. It is intended for transport companies, refiners, forestry companies, the agricultural and agribusiness sectors as well as the public authorities, students, university teachers and researchers.

Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass

Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass
A Book

by James H. Clark,Fabien Deswarte

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2014-12-22
  • Pages : 344
  • ISBN : 1118714458
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass, Second Edition presents an overview of the use of biorenewable resources in the 21st century for the manufacture of chemical products, materials and energy. The book demonstrates that biomass is essentially a rich mixture of chemicals and materials and, as such, has a tremendous potential as feedstock for making a wide range of chemicals and materials with applications in industries from pharmaceuticals to furniture. Completely revised and updated to reflect recent developments, this new edition begins with an introduction to the biorefinery concept, followed by chapters addressing the various types of available biomass feedstocks, including waste, and the different pre-treatment and processing technologies being developed to turn these feedstocks into platform chemicals, polymers, materials and energy. The book concludes with a discussion on the policies and strategies being put in place for delivering the so-called Bioeconomy. Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass is a valuable resource for academics, industrial scientists and policy-makers working in the areas of industrial biotechnology, biorenewables, chemical engineering, fine and bulk chemical production, agriculture technologies, plant science, and energy and power generation. We need to reduce our dependence on fossil resources and increasingly derive all the chemicals we take for granted and use in our daily life from biomass – and we must make sure that we do this using green chemistry and sustainable technologies! For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs Topics covered include: • The biorefinery concept • Biomass feedstocks • Pre-treatment technologies • Platform molecules from renewable resources • Polymers from bio-based monomers • Biomaterials • Bio-based energy production Praise for the 1st edition: “Drawing on the expertise of the authors the book involves a degree of plant biology and chemical engineering, which illustrates the multidisciplinary nature of the topic beautifully” - Chemistry World

Recent Advances in Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass

Recent Advances in Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass
A Book

by Ashok Pandey,Thallada Bhaskar,Michael Stöcker,Rajeev Sukumaran

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2015-01-28
  • Pages : 504
  • ISBN : 0444632905
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides general information and data on one of the most promising renewable energy sources: biomass for its thermochemical conversion. During the last few years, there has been increasing focus on developing the processes and technologies for the conversion of biomass to liquid and gaseous fuels and chemicals, in particular to develop low-cost technologies. This book provides date-based scientific information on the most advanced and innovative processing of biomass as well as the process development elements on thermochemical processing of biomass for the production of biofuels and bio-products on (biomass-based biorefinery). The conversion of biomass to biofuels and other value-added products on the principle biorefinery offers potential from technological perspectives as alternate energy. The book covers intensive R&D and technological developments done during the last few years in the area of renewable energy utilizing biomass as feedstock and will be highly beneficial for the researchers, scientists and engineers working in the area of biomass-biofuels- biorefinery. Provides the most advanced and innovative thermochemical conversion technology for biomass Provides information on large scales such as thermochemical biorefinery Useful for researchers intending to study scale up Serves as both a textbook for graduate students and a reference book for researchers Provides information on integration of process and technology on thermochemical conversion of biomass

Biomass Recalcitrance

Biomass Recalcitrance
Deconstructing the Plant Cell Wall for Bioenergy

by Michael Himmel

  • Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
  • Release : 2008-06-23
  • Pages : 505
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments, enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options."--Pub. desc.

Smart Bioenergy

Smart Bioenergy
Technologies and concepts for a more flexible bioenergy provision in future energy systems

by Daniela Thrän

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-04-20
  • Pages : 181
  • ISBN : 3319161938
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass is a vital source of renewable energy, because it offers a wide range of established and potential methods for energy generation. It is also an important facet of the progression toward a sustainable energy future. The need for further development in the provision of bioenergy is underlined by challenges affecting the biomass resource base, including rising demand for biomass for food, feed, materials and fuel. This is underlined by significant concerns over factors relating to land, such as soil, nutrients and biodiversity. This book examines and analyzes Germany's decade-long initiative toward implementation of an active policy for the transition of the energy system to make greater use of renewable energy sources, which has resulted in a significant increase in the amount of biomass used for electricity, heat and transport fuel. The book begins with a review of market and resource base issues and moves on to analyze the technical options for a more integrated bioenergy use. The analysis spans the entire bioenergy provision chain including solid, liquid and gaseous biofuels. A case study offers a detailed model of the effects of smart biomass energy on the German energy system. The book closes with a view of the most promising fields and an appraisal of needed elements for a successful transition.

Renewable Energy Sources: Engineering, Technology, Innovation

Renewable Energy Sources: Engineering, Technology, Innovation
ICORES 2017

by Krzysztof Mudryk,Sebastian Werle

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-02-09
  • Pages : 834
  • ISBN : 3319723715
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume presents refereed papers based on the oral and poster presentations at the 4th International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources, which was held from June 20 to 23, 2017 in Krynica, Poland. The scope of the conference included a wide range of topics in renewable energy technology, with a major focus on biomass and solar energy, but also extending to geothermal energy, heat pumps, fuel cells, wind energy, energy storage, and the modeling and optimization of renewable energy systems. The conference had the unique goal of gathering Polish and international researchers’ perspectives on renewable energy sources, and furthermore of balancing them against governmental policy considerations. Accordingly, the conference offered not only scientific sessions but also panels to discuss best practices and solutions with local entrepreneurs and federal government bodies. The Conference was jointly organized by the University of Agriculture in Krakow, the International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR), the Polish Society of Agricultural Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology (Krakow), the Polish Society for Agrophysics under the patronage of the Rector of the University of Agriculture in Krakow, and the Polish Chamber of Ecology.

Biomass and Carbon Fuels in Metallurgy

Biomass and Carbon Fuels in Metallurgy
A Book

by Jaroslav Legemza,Mária Fröhlichová,Róbert Findorák

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2019-12-19
  • Pages : 292
  • ISBN : 1000037622
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass and Carbon Fuels in Metallurgy presents contemporary and new insights into the use of carbonaceous (Biomass) fuels in the metallurgical sector. The authors describe application of these fuels in different technological processes to produce pig iron, steel and ferroalloys. Emphasis is placed on biomass and its metallurgical utilization. Coverage includes the specification of fuels, their classification and the characteristics of their basic properties. The use of carbonaceous fuels in the production of various kinds of agglomerates (ferriferous, manganese and metalized) is also covered. Key Features: Provides a comprehensive view of carbonaceous fuels in various metallurgy processes Details experiments conducted on the use of traditional and alternative (biomass) carbonaceous fuels for the production of agglomerates. Demonstrates that the energy potential of biomass can also be successfully used in pyrometallurgical processes Describes applications of biomass-based fuels in different technological processes for the production of pig iron, steel and ferroalloys. Coverage includes the specification of fuels, their classification and the characteristics of their basic properties.

Pretreatment Techniques for Biofuels and Biorefineries

Pretreatment Techniques for Biofuels and Biorefineries
A Book

by Zhen Fang

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-01-04
  • Pages : 457
  • ISBN : 3642327354
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book includes 19 chapters contributed by the world's leading experts on pretreatment methods for biomass. It extensively covers the different types of biomass (e.g. molasses, sugar beet pulp, cheese whey, sugarcane residues, palm waste, vegetable oil, straws, stalks and wood), various pretreatment approaches (e.g. physical, thermal, chemical, physicochemical and biological) and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals such as sugars, ethanol, extracellular polysaccharides, biodiesel, gas and oil. In addition to traditional methods such as steam, hot-water, hydrothermal, diluted-acid, organosolv, ozonolysis, sulfite, milling, fungal and bacterial, microwave, ultrasonic, plasma, torrefaction, pelletization, gasification (including biogas) and liquefaction pretreatments, it also introduces and discusses novel techniques such as nano and solid catalysts, organic electrolyte solutions and ionic liquids. This book offers a review of state-of-the-art research and provides guidance for the future paths of developing pretreatment techniques of biomass for biofuels, especially in the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It intends to provide a systematic introduction of pretreatment techniques. It is an accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries. Zhen Fang is a Professor of Bioenergy and the leader and founder of the biomass group at the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is also an adjunct full Professor of Life Sciences at the University of Science and Technology of China.