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Ultracold Bosonic and Fermionic Gases

Ultracold Bosonic and Fermionic Gases
A Book

by Kathy Levin,Alexander Fetter,Dan Stamper-Kurn

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2012-11-15
  • Pages : 260
  • ISBN : 0444538623
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The rapidly developing topic of ultracold atoms has many actual and potential applications for condensed-matter science, and the contributions to this book emphasize these connections. Ultracold Bose and Fermi quantum gases are introduced at a level appropriate for first-year graduate students and non-specialists such as more mature general physicists. The reader will find answers to questions like: how are experiments conducted and how are the results interpreted? What are the advantages and limitations of ultracold atoms in studying many-body physics? How do experiments on ultracold atoms facilitate novel scientific opportunities relevant to the condensed-matted community? This volume seeks to be comprehensible rather than comprehensive; it aims at the level of a colloquium, accessible to outside readers, containing only minimal equations and limited references. In large part, it relies on many beautiful experiments from the past fifteen years and their very fruitful interplay with basic theoretical ideas. In this particular context, phenomena most relevant to condensed-matter science have been emphasized. Introduces ultracold Bose and Fermi quantum gases at a level appropriate for non-specialists Discusses landmark experiments and their fruitful interplay with basic theoretical ideas Comprehensible rather than comprehensive, containing only minimal equations

Ultracold Bosonic and Fermionic Gases

Ultracold Bosonic and Fermionic Gases
A Book

by Kathryn Levin,Alexander L. Fetter,Dan M. Stamper-Kurn

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 208
  • ISBN : 0444538577
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The rapidly developing topic of ultracold atoms has many actual and potential applications for condensed-matter science, and the contributions to this book emphasize these connections. Ultracold Bose and Fermi quantum gases are introduced at a level appropriate for first-year graduate students and non-specialists such as more mature general physicists. The reader will find answers to questions like: how are experiments conducted and how are the results interpreted? What are the advantages and limitations of ultracold atoms in studying many-body physics? How do experiments on ultracold atoms facilitate novel scientific opportunities relevant to the condensed-matted community? This volume seeks to be comprehensible rather than comprehensive; it aims at the level of a colloquium, accessible to outside readers, containing only minimal equations and limited references. In large part, it relies on many beautiful experiments from the past fifteen years and their very fruitful interplay with basic theoretical ideas. In this particular context, phenomena most relevant to condensed-matter science have been emphasized. Introduces ultracold Bose and Fermi quantum gases at a level appropriate for non-specialists Discusses landmark experiments and their fruitful interplay with basic theoretical ideas Comprehensible rather than comprehensive, containing only minimal equations

Quantum Coherence and Magnetism in Bosonic and Fermionic Gases of Ultracold Atoms

Quantum Coherence and Magnetism in Bosonic and Fermionic Gases of Ultracold Atoms
A Book

by Gyu-Boong Jo,Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Physics

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2010
  • Pages : 185
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In this thesis, two sets of experimental studies in bosonic and fermionic gases are described. In the first part of the thesis, itinerant ferromagnetism was studied in a strongly interacting Fermi gas of ultracold atoms. The observation of nonmonotonic behavior of lifetime, kinetic energy, and size for increasing repulsive interactions provides strong evidence for a phase transition to a ferromagnetic state. Our observations imply that itinerant ferromagnetism of delocalized fermions is possible without lattice and band structure, and our data validate the most basic model for ferromagnetism introduced by Stoner. In the second part of the thesis, the coherence properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) was studied in a radio frequency induced double-well potential implemented on a microfabricated atom chip. We observed phase coherence between the separated condensates for times up to 200 ms after splitting, a factor of 10 longer than the phase diffusion time expected for a coherent state for our experimental conditions. The enhanced coherence time is attributed to number squeezing of the initial state by a factor of 10. Furthermore, the effect of phase fluctuations on an atom interferometer was studied in an elongated BEC. We demonstrated that the atom interferometer using the condensates is robust against phase fluctuations; i.e., the relative phase of the split condensates is reproducible despite axial phase fluctuations. Finally, phase-sensitive recombination of two BECs was demonstrated on an atom chip. The recombination was shown to result in heating, caused by the dissipation of dark solitons, which depends on the relative phase of the two condensates. This heating reduces the number of condensate atoms and provides a robust way to read out the phase.

From Atom Optics to Quantum Simulation

From Atom Optics to Quantum Simulation
Interacting Bosons and Fermions in Three-Dimensional Optical Lattice Potentials

by Sebastian Will

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-15
  • Pages : 258
  • ISBN : 3642336337
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This thesis explores ultracold quantum gases of bosonic and fermionic atoms in optical lattices. The highly controllable experimental setting discussed in this work, has opened the door to new insights into static and dynamical properties of ultracold quantum matter. One of the highlights reported here is the development and application of a novel time-resolved spectroscopy technique for quantum many-body systems. By following the dynamical evolution of a many-body system after a quantum quench, the author shows how the important energy scales of the underlying Hamiltonian can be measured with high precision. This achievement, its application, and many other exciting results make this thesis of interest to a broad audience ranging from quantum optics to condensed matter physics. A lucid style of writing accompanied by a series of excellent figures make the work accessible to readers outside the rapidly growing research field of ultracold atoms.

Many-Body Physics with Ultracold Gases

Many-Body Physics with Ultracold Gases
Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 94, July 2010

by Christophe Salomon,Georgy V. Shlyapnikov,Leticia F. Cugliandolo

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 345
  • ISBN : 019966188X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides authoritative tutorials on the most recent achievements in the field of quantum gases at the interface between atomic physics and quantum optics, condensed matter physics, nuclear and high-energy physics, non-linear physics, and quantum information.

Vortex Structures in Ultra-Cold Atomic Gases

Vortex Structures in Ultra-Cold Atomic Gases
A Book

by Nick Verhelst

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In this chapter a basic introduction to the theory of vortices in ultra-cold (superfluid) atomic gases is given. The main focus will be on bosonic atomic gases, since these contain the same basic physics, but with simpler formulas. Towards the end of the chapter, the difference between bosonic and fermionic atomic gases is discussed. This discussion will allow the reader to make the conceptual step from bosonic to fermionic gases, while pinpointing the main differences and difficulties when working with fermionic gases rather than bosonic gases. The goal of this chapter is to provide a good and general starting point for researchers, or other interested parties, who wish to start exploring the physics of ultra-cold gases.

Proceedings of the XVIII International Conference

Proceedings of the XVIII International Conference
ICOLS 2007 : Telluride, Colorado, USA, 24-29 June 2007

by Leo William Hollberg,James Charles Bergquist,Mark A. Kasevich

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 319
  • ISBN : 9812813195
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The eighteenth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy was held on 24-29 June 2007 in Telluride, Colorado. In keeping with its rich tradition, ICOLS-07 was truly an international gathering with 173 delegates and 34 accompanying guests from 21 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, United Kingdom, and the United States).This volume presents the invited talks comprising the technical program of the Conference, arranged in the general topic areas of degenerate quantum gases, quantum information and control, precision measurements, fundamental physics and applications, ultra-fast control and spectroscopy, novel spectroscopic applications, spectroscopy on the small scale, cold atoms and molecules, single atoms and quantum optics, and optical atomic clocks. The vibrant exchange of ideas provided the real strength and foundation of the Conference, especially in areas of the ever-expanding field of laser spectroscopy.

Modern trends in Superconductivity and Superfluidity

Modern trends in Superconductivity and Superfluidity
A Book

by M. Yu. Kagan

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2013-12-11
  • Pages : 550
  • ISBN : 940076961X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book concisely presents the latest trends in the physics of superconductivity and superfluidity and magnetism in novel systems, as well as the problem of BCS-BEC crossover in ultracold quantum gases and high-Tc superconductors. It further illuminates the intensive exchange of ideas between these closely related fields of condensed matter physics over the last 30 years of their dynamic development. The content is based on the author’s original findings obtained at the Kapitza Institute, as well as advanced lecture courses he held at the Moscow Engineering Physical Institute, Amsterdam University, Loughborough University and LPTMS Orsay between 1994 and 2011. In addition to the findings of his group, the author discusses the most recent concepts in these fields, obtained both in Russia and in the West. The book consists of 16 chapters which are divided into four parts. The first part describes recent developments in superfluid hydrodynamics of quantum fluids and solids, including the fashionable subject of possible supersolidity in quantum crystals of 4He, while the second describes BCS-BEC crossover in quantum Fermi-Bose gases and mixtures, as well as in the underdoped states of cuprates. The third part is devoted to non-phonon mechanisms of superconductivity in unconventional (anomalous) superconductors, including some important aspects of the theory of high-Tc superconductivity. |The last part considers the anomalous normal state of novel superconductive materials and materials with colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). The book offers a valuable guide for senior-level undergraduate students and graduate students, postdoctoral and other researchers specializing in solid-state and low-temperature physics.

Condensed Matter Theories

Condensed Matter Theories
A Book

by Virulh Sa-yakanit

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 499
  • ISBN : 9812836624
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Thirty-First International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories (CMT31) held in Bangkok focused on the many roles played by ab initio theory, modeling, and high-performance computing in condensed matter and materials science, providing a forum for the discussion of recent advances and exploration of new problems. Fifty-six invited papers were presented, of which 38 appear as chapters in this volume. Reports of recent results generated lively debate on two-dimensional electron systems, the metal-insulator transition, dilute magnetic semiconductors, effects of disorder, magnetoresistence phenomena, ferromagnetic stripes, quantum Hall systems, strongly correlated Fermi systems, superconductivity, dilute fermionic and bosonic gases, nanostructured materials, plasma instabilities, quantum fluid mixtures, and helium in reduced geometries.

Condensed Matter Theories

Condensed Matter Theories
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9814469378
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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BCS

BCS
50 Years

by Leon N. Cooper,Dmitri? ?duardovich Fel?dman

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 575
  • ISBN : 9814304654
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Named a Top Five Book of 2011 by Physics Today, USA.The BCS theory of superconductivity developed in 1957 by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer has been remarkably successful in explaining the properties of superconductors. In addition, concepts from BCS have been incorporated into diverse fields of physics, from nuclear physics and dense quark matter to the current standard model. Practical applications include SQUIDs, magnetic resonance imaging, superconducting electronics and the transmission of electricity. This invaluable book is a compilation of both a historical account and a discussion of the current state of theory and experiment.With contributions from many prominent scientists, it aims to introduce students and researchers to the origins, the impact and the current state of the BCS theory.

Strongly Interacting Quantum Systems out of Equilibrium

Strongly Interacting Quantum Systems out of Equilibrium
Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 99, August 2012

by Thierry Giamarchi,Andrew J. Millis,Olivier Parcollet,Hubert Saleur,Leticia F. Cugliandolo

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2016-07-07
  • Pages : 578
  • ISBN : 0191080543
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Over the last decade new experimental tools and theoretical concepts are providing new insights into collective nonequilibrium behavior of quantum systems. The exquisite control provided by laser trapping and cooling techniques allows us to observe the behavior of condensed bose and degenerate Fermi gases under nonequilibrium drive or after `quenches' in which a Hamiltonian parameter is suddenly or slowly changed. On the solid state front, high intensity short-time pulses and fast (femtosecond) probes allow solids to be put into highly excited states and probed before relaxation and dissipation occur. Experimental developments are matched by progress in theoretical techniques ranging from exact solutions of strongly interacting nonequilibrium models to new approaches to nonequilibrium numerics. The summer school `Strongly interacting quantum systems out of equilibrium' held at the Les Houches School of Physics as its XCIX session was designed to summarize this progress, lay out the open questions and define directions for future work. This books collects the lecture notes of the main courses given in this summer school.

Laser Spectroscopy

Laser Spectroscopy
A Book

by Peter Hannaford,Andrei Sidorov,Hans Bachor,Ken Baldwin

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2004-02-13
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 9814483958
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume comprises a collection of invited and selected contributions presented at the 16th International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy in Palm Cove, Queensland, Australia, 13–18 July 2003. The papers report the latest and most exciting developments in laser spectroscopy and related areas: new ultra-precise spectroscopic measurements based on optical frequency combs including tests of the stability of the fundamental constants; the first realization of Bose–Einstein condensation in cesium and ytterbium; the behavior of ultra-cold bosons and fermions in optical lattices; the production of ultra-cold cesium, helium and fermionic lithium molecules; the production and coherent transport of ultra-cold atoms in microtraps on the surface of chips; the implementation of one- and two-qubit quantum algorithms and experiments towards a scalable quantum computer based on trapped ions; and new medical applications of laser spectroscopy. The proceedings have been selected for coverage in: • Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings® (ISTP® / ISI Proceedings) • Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings (ISTP CDROM version / ISI Proceedings) • CC Proceedings — Engineering & Physical Sciences Contents: Precision SpectroscopyUltrafast SpectroscopyQuantum Degenerate GasesCold Molecules and Cold collisionsAtom Optics and InterferometryCavity QEDQuantum Optics and Quantum InformationNovel Applications and New Laser SourcesMedical Applications Readership: Researchers and graduate students in the fields of laser spectroscopy, atomic and molecular physics, atom optics, quantum gases and quantum information. Keywords:Laser Spectroscopy;Precision Spectroscopy;Quantum Degenerate Gases;Quantum Information;Atom Optics;Quantum Optics

Laser Spectroscopy

Laser Spectroscopy
Proceedings of the XVI International Conference, Palm Cove, Queensland, Australia, 13-18 July 2003

by Peter Hannaford

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2004
  • Pages : 395
  • ISBN : 9812703004
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume comprises a collection of invited and selected contributions presented at the 16th International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy in Palm Cove, Queensland, Australia, 13OCo18 July 2003. The papers report the latest and most exciting developments in laser spectroscopy and related areas: new ultra-precise spectroscopic measurements based on optical frequency combs including tests of the stability of the fundamental constants; the first realization of BoseOCoEinstein condensation in cesium and ytterbium; the behavior of ultra-cold bosons and fermions in optical lattices; the production of ultra-cold cesium, helium and fermionic lithium molecules; the production and coherent transport of ultra-cold atoms in microtraps on the surface of chips; the implementation of one- and two-qubit quantum algorithms and experiments towards a scalable quantum computer based on trapped ions; and new medical applications of laser spectroscopy. The proceedings have been selected for coverage in: . OCo Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings- (ISTP- / ISI Proceedings). OCo Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings (ISTP CDROM version / ISI Proceedings). OCo CC Proceedings OCo Engineering & Physical Sciences."

A Single Apparatus for the Production of Ultracold Fermionic Lithium and Cold Bosonic Caesium Gases

A Single Apparatus for the Production of Ultracold Fermionic Lithium and Cold Bosonic Caesium Gases
A Book

by Asaf Paris Mandoki

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ultra-cold Fermi Gases

Ultra-cold Fermi Gases
A Book

by M. Inguscio,W. Ketterle,C. Salomon

  • Publisher : IOS Press
  • Release : 2008-04-18
  • Pages : 932
  • ISBN : 1607503182
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The field of cold atomic gases faced a revolution in 1995 when Bose-Einstein condensation was achieved. Since then, there has been an impressive progress, both experimental and theoretical. The quest for ultra-cold Fermi gases started shortly after the 1995 discovery, and quantum degeneracy in a gas of fermionic atoms was obtained in 1999. The Pauli exclusion principle plays a crucial role in many aspects of ultra-cold Fermi gases, including inhibited interactions with applications to precision measurements, and strong correlations. The path towards strong interactions and pairing of fermions opened up with the discovery in 2003 that molecules formed by fermions near a Feshbach resonance were surprisingly stable against inelastic decay, but featured strong elastic interactions. This remarkable combination was explained by the Pauli exclusion principle and the fact that only inelastic collisions require three fermions to come close to each other. The unexpected stability of strongly interacting fermions and fermion pairs triggered most of the research which was presented at this summer school. It is remarkable foresight (or good luck) that the first steps to organize this summer school were already taken before this discovery. It speaks for the dynamics of the field how dramatically it can change course when new insight is obtained. The contributions in this volume provide a detailed coverage of the experimental techniques for the creation and study of Fermi quantum gases, as well as the theoretical foundation for understanding the properties of these novel systems.

Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices with Long-range Interactions and Periodic Driving

Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices with Long-range Interactions and Periodic Driving
A Book

by Olivier Tieleman

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 173
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This thesis contains theoretical research on ultracold quantum gases in spatially periodic potentials, featuring high-frequency periodic driving, long-range interactions, or both. The largest part features deep potentials where the behaviour of the gas is well-described by quantum lattice models. The periodic driving is then integrated out to obtain effective time-independent descriptions. One project investigates emergent long-range interactions in a stationary, weak, spatially periodic potential, where a lattice theory is not appropriate.In two short introductory chapters, the topics of ultracold atoms, optical lattice potentials, periodic driving, and long-range interactions, are sketched, without attempting to give a complete overview. Some experimentally relevant length and energy scales are given, but the main focus is on deriving and constructing theoretical descriptions of ultracold gases in various spatially and/or temporally periodic potentials.The first project presented, is focused on how the single-particle spectrum of a Bose gas in a non-separable two-dimensional square lattice is affected by high-frequency periodic driving; the most striking conclusion is that under suitable circumstances, it develops two inequivalent minima, leading to finite-momentum Bose-Einstein condensation. Perturbative calculations indicate that local interactions induce spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking (TRSB) in such a system.The second project investigates the interplay between kinetic frustration and long-range interactions in fermionic gases. Both a mean-field approximation and exact diagonalisations predict that such a system, studied in the more specific realisation of a weakly interacting dipolar fermionic gas in a 2D triangular lattice, also leads to spontaneous TRSB. Furthermore, a density wave could form at quarter filling, where the Fermi surface is perfectly nested. Perhaps more interesting yet, a spatially inhomogeneous TRSB pattern is predicted, confined to the low-density sublattice that emerges in the density wave.The third project revolves around the question of supersolidity in the presence of a gauge field. Applying the Bogolyubov approximation to a variation of the extended Bose-Hubbard model, indicates that combining an artificial staggered magnetic field in a 2D square lattice with nearest-neighbour density-density interactions, not only leads to a supersolid with staggered vortices, but also induces an inhomogeneous distribution of the associated currents around the elementary plaquette.In the fourth project, a one-dimensional Bose gas with strong local interactions in a weak lattice at incommensurate densities is shown to feature excitations corresponding to excess or deficit particles. The excitations interact repulsively at long distances, in spite of the fact that the underlying atoms themselves do not. As a consequence, the incommensurability of the density with the lattice can drive a transition to a density wave and even a supersolid.The four above-mentioned research projects combine bosonic and fermionic gases, weak and strong interactions, perturbative and mean-field approximations, effective field theories and exact diagonalisations. The main overall conclusion is that long-range interactions and high-frequency periodic driving lead to a very diverse range of fascinating phenomena in ultracold lattice gases.

2d Quantum Metamaterials: Proceedings Of The 2018 Nist Workshop - 2018 Nist Workshop

2d Quantum Metamaterials: Proceedings Of The 2018 Nist Workshop - 2018 Nist Workshop
A Book

by Kirk Wiley P,Randall John N,Owen James H G

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2019-09-12
  • Pages : 156
  • ISBN : 9811206074
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Exciting developments in strategic areas of science and engineering makes for possible new engineered structures identified as quantum metamaterials. These new structures offer unusual properties that involve fundamental concepts such as entangled quantum states, superposition, quantum coherence, analog quantum simulation, etc., opening a new era of technological advancement. This manuscript presents the output of a recent workshop held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 2018. It covers the key scientific ideas, various technical approaches under investigation, and the potential technological outcomes in a new field of research.

A Single Apparatus for the Proportion of Ultracold Fermionic Lithium and Cold Bosonic Caesium Gases

A Single Apparatus for the Proportion of Ultracold Fermionic Lithium and Cold Bosonic Caesium Gases
A Book

by Asaf Paris-Mandoki

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 126
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A Primer on Quantum Fluids

A Primer on Quantum Fluids
A Book

by Carlo F. Barenghi,Nick G. Parker

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2016-08-10
  • Pages : 119
  • ISBN : 3319424769
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The aim of this primer is to cover the essential theoretical information, quickly and concisely, in order to enable senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students to tackle projects in topical research areas of quantum fluids, for example, solitons, vortices and collective modes. The selection of the material, both regarding the content and level of presentation, draws on the authors analysis of the success of relevant research projects with newcomers to the field, as well as of the students feedback from many taught and self-study courses on the subject matter. Starting with a brief historical overview, this text covers particle statistics, weakly interacting condensates and their dynamics and finally superfluid helium and quantum turbulence. At the end of each chapter (apart from the first) there are some exercises. Detailed solutions can be made available to instructors upon request to the authors.