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Underneath the Bragg Peaks

Underneath the Bragg Peaks
Structural Analysis of Complex Materials

by Takeshi Egami,S. J. L. Billinge

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 404
  • ISBN : 0080426980
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book describes a technique of structural study, the atomic-pair distribution function analysis. This is a relatively new technique, with a strong promise of wide application in the study of the local structure of crystalline materials and materials science in general.

Modern Glass Characterization

Modern Glass Characterization
A Book

by Mario Affatigato

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2015-09-16
  • Pages : 464
  • ISBN : 1119051886
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The book consists of a series of edited chapters, each written by an expert in the field and focusing on a particular characterization technique as applied to glass. The book covers a variety of techniques ranging from the very common (like Raman and FTIR) to the most recent (and less well known) ones, like SEM for structural analysis and photoelastic measurements. The level of the chapters make it suitable for researchers and for graduate students about to start their research work. It will also: discuss the technique itself, background, nuances when it comes to looking at glassy materials, interpretation of results, case studies, and recent and near-future innovations Fill a widening gap in modern techniques for glass characterization Provide much needed updates on the multiple essential characterization techniques

Fundamentals of Powder Diffraction and Structural Characterization of Materials, Second Edition

Fundamentals of Powder Diffraction and Structural Characterization of Materials, Second Edition
A Book

by Vitalij Pecharsky,Peter Zavalij

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2008-11-24
  • Pages : 744
  • ISBN : 0387095799
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A little over ?ve years have passed since the ?rst edition of this book appeared in print. Seems like an instant but also eternity, especially considering numerous developments in the hardware and software that have made it from the laboratory test beds into the real world of powder diffraction. This prompted a revision, which had to be beyond cosmetic limits. The book was, and remains focused on standard laboratory powder diffractometry. It is still meant to be used as a text for teaching students about the capabilities and limitations of the powder diffraction method. We also hope that it goes beyond a simple text, and therefore, is useful as a reference to practitioners of the technique. The original book had seven long chapters that may have made its use as a text - convenient. So the second edition is broken down into 25 shorter chapters. The ?rst ?fteen are concerned with the fundamentals of powder diffraction, which makes it much more logical, considering a typical 16-week long semester. The last ten ch- ters are concerned with practical examples of structure solution and re?nement, which were preserved from the ?rst edition and expanded by another example – R solving the crystal structure of Tylenol .

Powder Diffraction

Powder Diffraction
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : DIANE Publishing
  • Release : 1995
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9781422318324
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Neutron Scattering in Earth Sciences

Neutron Scattering in Earth Sciences
A Book

by Hans Rudolf Wenk

  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release : 2018-12-17
  • Pages : 491
  • ISBN : 1501509446
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Volume 63 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry provides an introduction for those not yet familiar with neutrons by describing basic features of neutrons and their interaction with matter as well illustrating important applications. The volume is divided into 17 Chapters. The first two chapters introduce properties of neutrons and neutron facilities, setting the stage for applications. Some applications rely on single crystals (Chapter 3) but mostly powders (Chapters 4-5) and bulk polycrystals (Chapters 15-16) are analyzed, at ambient conditions as well as low and high temperature and high pressure (Chapters 7-9). Characterization of magnetic structures remains a core application of neutron scattering (Chapter 6). The analysis of neutron data is not trivial and crystallographic methods have been modified to take account of the complexities, such as the Rietveld technique (Chapter 4) and the pair distribution function (Chapter 11). Information is not only obtained about solids but about liquids, melts and aqueous solutions as well (Chapters 11-13). In fact this field, approached with inelastic scattering (Chapter 10) and small angle scattering (Chapter 13) is opening unprecedented opportunities for earth sciences. Small angle scattering also contributes information about microstructures (Chapter 14). Neutron diffraction has become a favorite method to quantify residual stresses in deformed materials (Chapter 16) as well as preferred orientation patterns (Chapter 15). The volume concludes with a short introduction into neutron tomography and radiography that may well emerge as a principal application of neutron scattering in the future (Chapter 17).

Advances in Medical and Surgical Engineering

Advances in Medical and Surgical Engineering
A Book

by Waqar Ahmed,David Phoenix,Mark Jackson,C.P. Charalambous

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-03-21
  • Pages : 418
  • ISBN : 012822603X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advances in Medical and Surgical Engineering integrates the knowledge and experience of experts from academia and practicing surgeons working with patients. The cutting-edge progress in medical technology applications is making the traditional line between engineering and medical science ever thinner. This is an excellent resource for biomedical engineers working in industry and academia on developing medical technologies. It covers challenges in the application of technology in the clinic with views from an editorial team that is highly experienced in engineering, biomaterials, surgical practice, biomedical science and technology, and that has a proven track record of publishing applied biomedical science and technology. For medical practitioners, this book covers advances in technology in their domain. For students, this book identifies the opportunities of research based on the reviews of utilization of current technologies. The content in this book can also be of interest to policymakers, research funding agencies, and libraries, that are contributing to development of medical technologies. Covers circulatory support, aortic valve implantation and microvascular antestmosis Explores arthroplasty of both the knee and the shoulder Includes tribology of materials, laser treatment and machining of biomaterial

Polymer Morphology

Polymer Morphology
Principles, Characterization, and Processing

by Qipeng Guo

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2016-03-21
  • Pages : 464
  • ISBN : 1118892771
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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With a focus on structure-property relationships, this book describes how polymer morphology affects properties and how scientists can modify them. The book covers structure development, theory, simulation, and processing; and discusses a broad range of techniques and methods. • Provides an up-to-date, comprehensive introduction to the principles and practices of polymer morphology • Illustrates major structure types, such as semicrystalline morphology, surface-induced polymer crystallization, phase separation, self-assembly, deformation, and surface topography • Covers a variety of polymers, such as homopolymers, block copolymers, polymer thin films, polymer blends, and polymer nanocomposites • Discusses a broad range of advanced and novel techniques and methods, like x-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and electron microscopy and their applications in the morphology of polymer materials

Springer Handbook of Materials Data

Springer Handbook of Materials Data
A Book

by Hans Warlimont,Werner Martienssen

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-07-27
  • Pages : 1140
  • ISBN : 3319697439
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The second edition of this well-received handbook is the most concise yet comprehensive compilation of materials data. The chapters provide succinct descriptions and summarize essential and reliable data for various types of materials. The information is amply illustrated with 900 tables and 1050 figures selected primarily from well-established data collections, such as Landolt-Börnstein, which is now part of the SpringerMaterials database. The new edition of the Springer Handbook of Materials Data starts by presenting the latest CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants and provides comprehensive tables of the physical and physicochemical properties of the elements. 25 chapters collect and summarize the most frequently used data and relationships for numerous metals, nonmetallic materials, functional materials and selected special structures such as liquid crystals and nanostructured materials. Along with careful updates to the content and the inclusion of timely and extensive references, this second edition includes new chapters on polymers, materials for solid catalysts and low-dimensional semiconductors. This handbook is an authoritative reference resource for engineers, scientists and students engaged in the vast field of materials science.

Innovative Fields of Ballistics & Applied Physics

Innovative Fields of Ballistics & Applied Physics

by Prof. Govinda Chandra Rout,Dr. Sidhartha Pattanaik,Dr. Santosh Kumar Agarwalla ,Er. Ashanta Ranjan Routray

  • Publisher : Allied Publishers
  • Release : 2012-01-01
  • Pages : 144
  • ISBN : 818424746X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ballistics and applied physics plays a very important role in the system design and development of rockets, missiles and weapon systems. This book is an outcome of a seminar on these topics

IUTAM Symposium on Modelling Nanomaterials and Nanosystems

IUTAM Symposium on Modelling Nanomaterials and Nanosystems
Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium held in Aalborg, Denmark, 19-22 May, 2008

by R. Pyrz,Jens C. Rauhe

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2008-12-21
  • Pages : 342
  • ISBN : 1402095570
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Recent interest in nanotechnology is challenging the community to analyse, develop and design nanometer to micrometer-sized devices for applications in new generations of computer, electronics, photonics and drug delivery systems. To successfully design and fabricate novel nanomaterials and nanosystems, we must necessarily bridge the gap in our understanding of mechanical properties and processes at length scales ranging from 100 nanometers (where atomistic simulations are currently possible) to a micron (where continuum mechanics is experimentally validated). For this purpose the difficulties and complexity originate in the substantial differences in philosophy and viewpoints between conventional continuum mechanics and quantum theories. The challenge lies in how to establish the relationship between a continuum mechanical system and its atomistic counterpart in order to define continuum variables that are calculable within an atomic system.

High Entropy Alloys

High Entropy Alloys
Innovations, Advances, and Applications

by T.S. Srivatsan,Manoj Gupta

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2020-07-20
  • Pages : 734
  • ISBN : 1000046834
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides a cohesive overview of innovations, advances in processing and characterization, and applications for high entropy alloys (HEAs) in performance-critical and non-performance-critical sectors. It covers manufacturing and processing, advanced characterization and analysis techniques, and evaluation of mechanical and physical properties. With chapters authored by a team of internationally renowned experts, the volume includes discussions on high entropy thermoelectric materials, corrosion and thermal behavior of HEAs, improving fracture resistance, fatigue properties and high tensile strength of HEAs, HEA films, and more. This work will be of interest to academics, scientists, engineers, technologists, and entrepreneurs working in the field of materials and metals development for advanced applications. Features Addresses a broad spectrum of HEAs and related aspects, including manufacturing, processing, characterization, and properties Emphasizes the application of HEAs Aimed at researchers, engineers, and scientists working to develop materials for advanced applications T.S. Srivatsan, PhD, Professor of Materials Science and Engineering in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Akron (Ohio, USA), earned his MS in Aerospace Engineering in 1981 and his PhD in Mechanical Engineering in 1984 from the Georgia Institute of Technology (USA). He has authored or edited 65 books, delivered over 200 technical presentations, and authored or co-authored more than 700 archival publications in journals, book chapters, book reviews, proceedings of conferences, and technical reports. His RG score is 45 with a h-index of 53 and Google Scholar citations of 9000, ranking him to be among the top 2% of researchers in the world. He is a Fellow of (i) the American Society for Materials International, (ii) the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and (iii) the American Association for Advancement of Science. Manoj Gupta, PhD, is Associate Professor of Materials at NUS, Singapore. He is a former Head of Materials Division of the Mechanical Engineering Department and Director Designate of Materials Science and Engineering Initiative at NUS, Singapore. In August 2017, he was highlighted among the Top 1% Scientists of the World by the Universal Scientific Education and Research Network and in the Top 2.5% among scientists as per ResearchGate. In 2018, he was announced as World Academy Championship Winner in the area of Biomedical Sciences by the International Agency for Standards and Ratings. A multiple award winner, he actively collaborates/visits as an invited researcher and visiting and chair professor in Japan, France, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, China, the United States, and India.

Crystallography in Materials Science

Crystallography in Materials Science
From Structure-Property Relationships to Engineering

by Susan Schorr,Claudia Weidenthaler

  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release : 2021-07-05
  • Pages : 369
  • ISBN : 3110674912
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The knowledge about crystal structure and its correlation with physical properties is the prerequisite for designing new materials with taylored properties. This work provides for researchers and graduates a valuable resource on various techniques for crystal structure determinations. By discussing a broad range of different materials and tools the authors enable the understanding of why a material might be suitable for a particular application.

Structural Characterization Techniques

Structural Characterization Techniques
Advances and Applications in Clean Energy

by Lorenzo Malavasi

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2016-10-14
  • Pages : 262
  • ISBN : 1315341212
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book presents state-of-the-art contributions related to advanced structural characterization techniques in the field of clean energy materials with particular emphasis on solid oxide fuel cells and hydrogen storage materials. It describes several diffraction and spectroscopic techniques for the investigation of both average and local structures with several examples of the most recent materials for clean energy applications. It is the first authoritative collection of contributions on the importance of the application of the most advanced structural techniques to shed light on the properties and mechanisms of materials currently investigated for the use in alternative energy devices. The book provides key techniques for ex situ and in situ investigation of clean energy materials and, hence, is an essential guide for researchers working on the structural analysis of advanced materials.

Rietveld Refinement

Rietveld Refinement
Practical Powder Diffraction Pattern Analysis using TOPAS

by Robert E. Dinnebier,Andreas Leineweber,John S.O. Evans

  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release : 2018-12-17
  • Pages : 347
  • ISBN : 3110461382
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Almost 50 years have passed since the famous papers of Hugo Rietveld from the late sixties where he describes a method for the refinement of crystal structures from neutron powder diffraction data. Soon after, the potential of the method for laboratory X-ray powder diffraction was discovered. Although the method is now widely accepted, there are still many pitfalls in the theoretical understanding and in practical daily use. This book closes the gap with a theoretical introduction for each chapter followed by a practical approach.The flexible macro type language of the Topas Rietveld software can be considered as the defacto standard.

Computer Simulation Tools for X-ray Analysis

Computer Simulation Tools for X-ray Analysis
Scattering and Diffraction Methods

by Sérgio Luiz Morelhão

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-10-05
  • Pages : 294
  • ISBN : 3319195549
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book teaches the users on how to construct a library of routines to simulate scattering and diffraction by almost any kind of samples. The main goal of this book is to break down the huge barrier of difficulties faced by beginners from many fields (Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Material Science, etc.) in using X-rays as an analytical tool in their research. Besides fundamental concepts, MatLab routines are provided, showing how to test and implement the concepts. The major difficult in analysing materials by X-ray techniques is that it strongly depends on simulation software. This book teaches the users on how to construct a library of routines to simulate scattering and diffraction by almost any kind of samples. It provides to a young student the knowledge that would take more than 20 years to acquire by working on X-rays and relying on the available textbooks. The scientific productivity worldwide is growing at a breakneck pace, demanding ever more dynamic approaches and synergies between different fields of knowledge. To master the fundamentals of X-ray physics means the opportunity of working at an infiniteness of fields, studying systems where the organizational understanding of matter at the atomic scale is necessary. Since the discovery of X radiation, its usage as investigative tool has always been under fast expansion afforded by instrumental advances and computational resources. Developments in medical and technological fields have, as one of the master girders, the feasibility of structural analysis offered by X-rays. One of the major difficulties faced by beginners in using this fantastic tool lies in the analysis of experimental data. There are only few cases where it is possible to extract structural information directly from experiments. In most cases, structure models and simulation of radiation-matter interaction processes are essential. The advent of intense radiation sources and rapid development of nanotechnology constantly creates challenges that seek solutions beyond those offered by standard X-ray techniques. Preparing new researchers for this scenario of rapid and drastic changes requires more than just teaching theories of physical phenomena. It also requires teaching of how to implement them in a simple and efficient manner. In this book, fundamental concepts in applied X-ray physics are demonstrated through available computer simulation tools. Using MatLab, more than eighty routines are developed for solving the proposed exercises, most of which can be directly used in experimental data analysis. Therefore, besides X-ray physics, this book offers a practical programming course in modern high-level language, with plenty of graphic and mathematical tools.

Diffuse Scattering and Defect Structure Simulations

Diffuse Scattering and Defect Structure Simulations
A cook book using the program DISCUS

by Reinhard B. Neder,Thomas Proffen

  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Release : 2008-11-20
  • Pages : 240
  • ISBN : 0191552801
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In recent years it has become apparent that knowing the average atomic structure of materials is insufficient to understand their properties. Diffuse scattering in addition to the Bragg scattering holds the key to learning about defects in materials, the topic of many recent books. What has been missing is a detailed step-by-step guide how to simulate disordered materials. The DISCUS cook book fills this need covering simple topics such as building a computer crystal to complex topic such as domain structures, stacking faults or using advanced refinement techniques to adjust parameters on a disordered model. The book contains a CDROM with all files needed to recreate every example given using the program DISCUS. The reader is free to follow the principles behind simulating disordered materials or to get down into the details and run or modify the given examples.

Uniting Electron Crystallography and Powder Diffraction

Uniting Electron Crystallography and Powder Diffraction
A Book

by Ute Kolb,Kenneth Shankland,Louisa Meshi,Anatoly Avilov,William I.F David

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2012-12-20
  • Pages : 434
  • ISBN : 9400755805
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The polycrystalline and nanocrystalline states play an increasingly important role in exploiting the properties of materials, encompassing applications as diverse as pharmaceuticals, catalysts, solar cells and energy storage. A knowledge of the three-dimensional atomic and molecular structure of materials is essential for understanding and controlling their properties, yet traditional single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods lose their power when only polycrystalline and nanocrystalline samples are available. It is here that powder diffraction and single-crystal electron diffraction techniques take over, substantially extending the range of applicability of the crystallographic principles of structure determination. This volume, a collection of teaching contributions presented at the Crystallographic Course in Erice in 2011, clearly describes the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art of powder diffraction and electron diffraction methods in materials characterisation, encompassing a diverse range of disciplines and materials stretching from archeometry to zeolites. As such, it is a comprehensive and valuable resource for those wishing to gain an understanding of the broad applicability of these two rapidly developing fields.

Tenth European Powder Diffraction Conference

Tenth European Powder Diffraction Conference
Geneva, September 1-4, 2006

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release : 2015-10-29
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 3486992546
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Zeitschrift für Kristallographie. Supplement Volume 26 presents the complete Proceedings of all contributions to the X European Powder Diffraction Conference in Geneva 2006: Method Development and Application Instrumental Software Development Materials Supplement Series of Zeitschrift für Kristallographie publishes Proceedings and Abstracts of international conferences on the interdisciplinary field of crystallography.

Chalcogenides

Chalcogenides
Metastability and Phase Change Phenomena

by Alexander V. Kolobov,Junji Tominaga

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-08-22
  • Pages : 284
  • ISBN : 3642287050
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A state-of-the-art description of metastability observed in chalcogenide alloys is presented with the accent on the underlying physics. A comparison is made between sulphur(selenium)-based chalcogenide glasses, where numerous photo-induced phenomena take place entirely within the amorphous phase, and tellurides where a reversible crystal-to-amorphous phase-change transformation is a major effect. Applications of metastability in devices¿optical memories and nonvolatile electronic phase-change random-access memories among others are discussed, including the latest trends. Background material essential for understanding current research in the field is also provided.

27th Annual Conference of the German Crystallographic Society, March 25–28, 2019, Leipzig, Germany

27th Annual Conference of the German Crystallographic Society, March 25–28, 2019, Leipzig, Germany
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release : 2019-03-18
  • Pages : 134
  • ISBN : 3110657279
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Zeitschrift für Kristallographie. Supplement Volume 39 presents the complete Abstracts of all contributions to the 27th Annual Conference of the German Crystallographic Society in Leipzig (Germany) 2019: - Plenary Talks - Microsymposia - Poster Session Supplement Series of Zeitschrift für Kristallographie publishes Abstracts of international conferences on the interdisciplinary field of crystallography.