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Understanding Polymer Processing

Understanding Polymer Processing
Processes and Governing Equations

by Tim A. Osswald

  • Publisher : Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
  • Release : 2015-05-07
  • Pages : 290
  • ISBN : 3446446036
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides the background needed to understand not only the wide field of polymer processing, but also the emerging technologies associated with the plastics industry in the 21st Century. The book combines practical engineering concepts with modeling of realistic polymer processes. It is divided into three sections that provide the reader sufficient knowledge of polymer materials, polymer processing, and modeling. Understanding Polymer Processing is intended for the person who is entering the plastics manufacturing industry and as a textbook for students taking an introductory course in polymer processing. This three-part book also serves as a guide to the practicing engineer when choosing a process, determining important parameters and factors during the early stages of process design, and when optimizing such a process. Practical examples illustrating basic concepts are presented throughout the book. Contents: o Part I - Polymeric Materials This section gives a general introduction to polymers, including mechanical behavior of polymers and melt rheology o Part II Polymer Processing The major polymer processes are introduced in this section, including extrusion, mixing, injection molding, thermoforming, blow molding, film blowing, and many others. o Part III Modeling This last section delivers the tools to allow the engineer to solve back-of-the-envelop polymer processing models. It includes dimensional analysis and scaling, transport phenomena in polymer processing, and modeling polymer processes

Polymer Processing

Polymer Processing
Modeling and Simulation

by Tim A. Osswald,Juan P. Hernández-Ortiz

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 606
  • ISBN : 9783446403819
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Polymer Processing and Structure Development

Polymer Processing and Structure Development
A Book

by Arthur N. Wilkinson,A.J. Ryan

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 1998-07-31
  • Pages : 577
  • ISBN : 9780751403633
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Polymer science is fundamentally interdisciplinary, yet specialists in one aspect, such as chemistry or processing, frequently encounter difficulties in understanding the effects of other disciplines on their own. This book describes clearly how polymer chemistry and polymer processing interact to affect polymer properties. As such, specialists in both disciplines can gain a deeper understanding of how these subjects underpin each other. Coverage includes step-by-step introductions to polymer processing technologies; details of fluid flow and heat transfer behaviour; shaping methods and physical processes during cooking and curing, and analyses of moulding and extrusion processes.

Polymer Processing Instabilities

Polymer Processing Instabilities
Control and Understanding

by Savvas G. Hatzikiriakos,Kalman B. Migler

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2004-11-30
  • Pages : 488
  • ISBN : 142003068X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Polymer Processing Instabilities: Control and Understanding offers a practical understanding of the various flows that occur during the processing of polymer melts. The book pays particular attention to flow instabilities that affect the rate of production and the methods used to prevent and eliminate flow instabilities in order to increase production rates and enhance manufacturing efficiency. Polymer Processing Instabilities: Control and Understanding summarizes experimental observations of flow instabilities that occur in numerous processing operations such as extrusion, injection molding, fiber spinning, film casting, and film blowing for a wide range of materials, including most commodity polymers that are processed as melts at temperatures above their melting point or as concentrated solutions at lower temperatures. The book first presents the fundamental principles in rheology and flow instabilities. It relates the operating conditions with flow curves, the critical wall shear stress for the onset of the instabilities, and new visualization techniques with numerical modeling and molecular structure. It reviews one-dimensional phenomenological relaxation/oscillation models describing the experimental pressure and flow rate oscillations, analyzes the gross melt fracture (GMF) instability, and examines how traditional and non-traditional processing aids eliminate melt fracture and improve polymer processability. It supplies a numerical approach for the investigation of the linear viscoelastic stability behavior of simplified injection molding flows and examines a newly discovered family of instabilities that occur in co-extrusion. Polymer Processing Instabilities: Control and Understanding is unique in that it fills a gap in the polymer processing literature where polymer flow instabilities are not treated in-depth in any book. It summarizes state-of-the-art developments in the field, particularly those of the last ten years, and contains significant data based on this research.

Polymer Processing

Polymer Processing
Principles and Modeling

by Jean-François Agassant,Pierre Avenas,Pierre J. Carreau,Bruno Vergnes,Michel Vincent

  • Publisher : Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
  • Release : 2017-08-07
  • Pages : 888
  • ISBN : 1569907056
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Engineering of polymers is not an easy exercise: with evolving technology, it often involves complex concepts and processes. This book is intended to provide the theoretical essentials: understanding of processes, a basis for the use of design software, and much more. The necessary physical concepts such as continuum mechanics, rheological behavior and measurement methods, and thermal science with its application to heating-cooling problems and implications for flow behavior are analyzed in detail. This knowledge is then applied to key processing methods, including single-screw extrusion and extrusion die flow, twin-screw extrusion and its applications, injection molding, calendering, and processes involving stretching. With many exercises with solutions offered throughout the book to reinforce the concepts presented, and extensive illustrations, this is an essential guide for mastering the art of plastics processing. Practical and didactic, Polymer Processing: Principles and Modeling is intended for engineers and technicians of the profession, as well as for advanced students in Polymer Science and Plastics Engineering.

Polymer Processing

Polymer Processing
Principles and Design

by Donald G. Baird,Dimitris I. Collias

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2014-03-24
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 0470930586
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fundamental concepts coupled with practical, step-by-step guidance With its emphasis on core principles, this text equips readers with the skills and knowledge to design the many processes needed to safely and successfully manufacture thermoplastic parts. The first half of the text sets forth the general theory and concepts underlying polymer processing, such as the viscoelastic response of polymeric fluids and diffusion and mass transfer. Next, the text explores specific practical aspects of polymer processing, including mixing, extrusion dies, and post-die processing. By addressing a broad range of design issues and methods, the authors demonstrate how to solve most common processing problems. This Second Edition of the highly acclaimed Polymer Processing has been thoroughly updated to reflect current polymer processing issues and practices. New areas of coverage include: Micro-injection molding to produce objects weighing a fraction of a gram, such as miniature gears and biomedical devices New chapter dedicated to the recycling of thermoplastics and the processing of renewable polymers Life-cycle assessment, a systematic method for determining whether recycling is appropriate and which form of recycling is optimal Rheology of polymers containing fibers Chapters feature problem sets, enabling readers to assess and reinforce their knowledge as they progress through the text. There are also special design problems throughout the text that reflect real-world polymer processing issues. A companion website features numerical subroutines as well as guidance for using MATLAB®, IMSL®, and Excel to solve the sample problems from the text. By providing both underlying theory and practical step-by-step guidance, Polymer Processing is recommended for students in chemical, mechanical, materials, and polymer engineering.

Fundamentals of Polymer Processing

Fundamentals of Polymer Processing
A Book

by Stanley Middleman

  • Publisher : McGraw-Hill Companies
  • Release : 1977
  • Pages : 254
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advances in Polymer Processing

Advances in Polymer Processing
From Macro- To Nano- Scales

by S Thomas,Weimin Yang

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2009-05-30
  • Pages : 752
  • ISBN : 1845696425
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Processing techniques are critical to the performance of polymer products which are used in a wide range of industries. Advances in polymer processing: From macro- to nano- scales reviews the latest advances in polymer processing, techniques and materials. Part one reviews the fundamentals of polymer processing with chapters on rheology, materials and polymer extrusion. Part two then discusses advances in moulding technology with chapters on such topics as compression, rotational and blow moulding of polymers. Chapters in Part three review alternative processing technologies such as calendaring and coating, foam processing and radiation processing of polymers. Part four discusses micro and nano-technologies with coverage of themes such as processing of macro, micro and nanocomposites and processing of carbon nanotubes. The final section of the book addresses post-processing technologies with chapters on online monitoring and computer modelling as well as joining, machining, finishing and decorating of polymers. With is distinguished editors and team of international contributors, Advances in polymer processing: From macro- to nano- scales is an invaluable reference for engineers and academics concerned with polymer processing. Reviews the latest advances in polymer processing, techniques and materials analysing new challenges and opportunities Discusses the fundamentals of polymer processing considering the compounding and mixing of polymers as well as extrusion Assesses alternative processing technologies including calendaring and coating and thermoforming of polymers

Polymer Processing Fundamentals

Polymer Processing Fundamentals
A Book

by Tim A. Osswald

  • Publisher : Hanser Pub Incorporated
  • Release : 1998
  • Pages : 229
  • ISBN : 9781569902622
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Based on lecture notes from a five-week polymer processing laboratory course taught at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, this text provides background on polymer processing for engineering students and practicing engineers.

Polymer Processing and Characterization

Polymer Processing and Characterization
A Book

by Sabu Thomas,Deepalekshmi Ponnamma,Ajesh K. Zachariah

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2012-07-23
  • Pages : 168
  • ISBN : 1926895150
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book deals with the polymers, different methods of synthesis, and synthesis of composites, as well as the different techniques used for polymer characterization. Most of the world’s industries extract the anomalous properties of polymers to make excellent cost-effective materials. Because of this, the types of polymers, their processing, and the analysis of their various properties are very significant. Readers will gain a thorough knowledge about the processing of different types of polymers and composites made from them, as well as their various applications. Suitable for classroom use but especially important for researchers, this book addresses: Adhesion of amorphous polymers with vitrified bulk and surface glass transition Functionalized biopolymers and their applications A new synthesis of p-Cresol-Adipamide-Formaldehyde copolymer resin and its applications as an ion-changer Correlating performance of commercial viscosity modifiers for formulating shear stable industrial lubricants Synthesis of phthalonitrile polymers in ionic liquid and microwave media Studies on nanocomposite polymer electrolytes doped with Ca3(PO4)2 for lithium batteries

Handbook of Applied Polymer Processing Technology

Handbook of Applied Polymer Processing Technology
A Book

by Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff,Paul N. Cheremisinoff

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2020-10-07
  • Pages : 808
  • ISBN : 1000105350
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"Offers detailed coverage of applied polymer processing--presenting a wide range of technologies and furnishing state-of-the-art data on polymer components, properties, and processibility. Reviews fundamental rheological concepts. Contains over 1600 bibliographic citations, some 450 equations, and over 400 tables, drawings, and photographs."

Polymer Process Engineering

Polymer Process Engineering
A Book

by R. Griskey

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 478
  • ISBN : 9401105812
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Polymers are ubiquitous and pervasive in industry, science, and technology. These giant molecules have great significance not only in terms of products such as plastics, films, elastomers, fibers, adhesives, and coatings but also less ob viously though none the less importantly in many leading industries (aerospace, electronics, automotive, biomedical, etc.). Well over half the chemists and chem ical engineers who graduate in the United States will at some time work in the polymer industries. If the professionals working with polymers in the other in dustries are taken into account, the overall number swells to a much greater total. It is obvious that knowledge and understanding of polymers is essential for any engineer or scientist whose professional activities involve them with these macromolecules. Not too long ago, formal education relating to polymers was very limited, indeed, almost nonexistent. Speaking from a personal viewpoint, I can recall my first job after completing my Ph.D. The job with E.I. Du Pont de Nemours dealt with polymers, an area in which I had no university training. There were no courses in polymers offered at my alma mater. My experience, incidentally, was the rule and not the exception.

Rheological Fundamentals of Polymer Processing

Rheological Fundamentals of Polymer Processing
A Book

by J.A. Covas,J.F. Agassant,A.C. Diogo,J. Vlachopoulos,K. Walters

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-04-17
  • Pages : 464
  • ISBN : 9401585717
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Experts in rheology and polymer processing present up-to-date, fundamental and applied information on the rheological properties of polymers, in particular those relevant to processing, contributing to the physical understanding and the mathematical modelling of polymer processing sequences. Basic concepts of non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, micro-rheological modelling and constitutive modelling are reviewed, and rheological measurements are described. Topics with practical relevance are debated, such as linear viscoelasticity, converging and diverging flows, and the rheology of multiphase systems. Approximation methods are discussed for the computer modelling of polymer melt flow. Subsequently, polymer processing technologies are studied from both simulation and engineering perspectives. Mixing, crystallization and reactive processing aspects are also included. Audience: An integrated and complete view of polymer processing and rheology, important to institutions and individuals engaged in the characterisation, testing, compounding, modification and processing of polymeric materials. Can also support academic polymer processing engineering programs.

Introduction to Polymer Rheology and Processing

Introduction to Polymer Rheology and Processing
A Book

by Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-01-18
  • Pages : 290
  • ISBN : 1351082272
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An Introduction to Polymer Rheology and Processing is a practical desk reference providing an overview of operating principles, data interpretation, and qualitative explanation of the importance and relationship of rheology to polymer processing operations. It covers full-scale processing operations, relating industrial processing operations and design methodology to laboratory-scale testing. Hundreds of design formulas applicable to scaling up the processing behavior of polymeric melts are presented. The book also provides a "working knowledge" description of major rheological test methods useful in product development and includes a useful glossary of polymer and test method/instrumentation definitions. Lavishly illustrated and featuring numerous sample calculations and modeling approaches, An Introduction to Polymer Rheology and Processing is a "must have" book for polymer engineers and rheologists.

Polymer Processing Fundamentals

Polymer Processing Fundamentals
A Book

by Tim A. Osswald

  • Publisher : Hanser Verlag
  • Release : 1998
  • Pages : 229
  • ISBN : 9781569902622
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Based on lecture notes from a five-week polymer processing laboratory course taught at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, this text provides background on polymer processing for engineering students and practicing engineers.

Progress in Understanding of Polymer Crystallization

Progress in Understanding of Polymer Crystallization
A Book

by Günter Reiter,Gert R. Strobl

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2007-02-05
  • Pages : 506
  • ISBN : 354047305X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In the context of polymer crystallization there are several still open and often controversially debated questions. The present volume addresses issues such as novel general views and concepts. It presents new ideas in a connected and accessible way. The intention is thus not only to provide a summary of the present state-of-the-art to all active works but to provide an entry point to newcomer and graduate students entering the field.

Polymer Processing

Polymer Processing
A Book

by G.J. Morton-Jones

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 1989-06-30
  • Pages : 272
  • ISBN : 9780412267000
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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It can be stated with some justification that polymers, because of their mainly synthetic origins, are important because of their applications, perhaps more than in the case of more familiar and conventional materials such as metals and wood, which would exist apart from their use in human activities. The majority of polymers have been synthesized under the impetus of requirements for new and improved properties. The preparative routes to new polymers and blends, and the exploration of their structures and properties constitute absorbing subjects for study, but it is the final application of these materials in real, commercial products that provides the driving force for such developments. In recent years a number of excellent books have appeared which deal with the chemistry, structure, properties and engineering aspects of polymers. The processing of polymers, as products of the chemical industry, into engineering and consumer goods has received much less attention. There are some valuable texts for individual processes, especially the extrusion and injection moulding of thermoplastics, but others are less well served. This book provided a review of all the important processing routes for transforming polymers into products.

Polymer Melt Fracture

Polymer Melt Fracture
A Book

by Rudy Koopmans,Jaap Den Doelder,Jaap Molenaar

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2010-08-03
  • Pages : 341
  • ISBN : 1420018280
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The continually growing plastics market consists of more than 250 million tons of product annually, making the recurring problem of polymer melt fracture an acute issue in the extrusion of these materials. Presenting a pictorial library of the different forms of melt fracture and real industrial extrusion melt fracture phenomena, Polymer Melt Fracture provides pragmatic identification and industrial extrusion defect remediation strategies based on detailed experimental and theoretical findings from the last 50 years. Distinct microscopic photos Each chapter in this comprehensive volume covers a different aspect of the science and technology relating to polymer melt fracture. The book begins with a collection of optical and scanning electron microscopy pictures. These photos show distorted capillary die extrudates for a number of commercially available polymers. The authors present a brief introduction to the basic science and technology of polymers. They explain what polymers are, how they are made, and how they can be characterized. They also discuss polymer rheology, review the principles of continuum mechanics, and define linear viscoelastic material functions. Techniques for observing and measuring fracture Next, the book explains how polymer melt fracture is actually experienced in the polymer processing industry. It explains the various ways polymer melt fracture may appear during polymer melt processing in different extrusion processes. The authors provide comprehensive reviews of the polymer melt fracture literature, with chapters on experimental findings and the techniques used to observe and measure polymer melt fracture, and the influence of polymer architecture and polymer processing conditions on the onset and types of polymer melt fracture. Posing a hypothesis about the phenomenon, the book presents the current understanding of polymer melt fracture. Mathematical equations Recognizing the importance of models for simulations that may indicate potential solutions, the book discusses aspects of non-linear constitutive equations and microscopic theory and develops a macroscopic model, explaining the capabilities and limitations of this approach. The book presents an overview of pragmatic tools and methods that have been used to prevent the appearance of polymer melt fracture and explains how to use them to suppress defects.

Materials Processing

Materials Processing
A Unified Approach to Processing of Metals, Ceramics and Polymers

by Lorraine F. Francis

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2015-12-28
  • Pages : 614
  • ISBN : 0123851335
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Materials Processing is the first textbook to bring the fundamental concepts of materials processing together in a unified approach that highlights the overlap in scientific and engineering principles. It teaches students the key principles involved in the processing of engineering materials, specifically metals, ceramics and polymers, from starting or raw materials through to the final functional forms. Its self-contained approach is based on the state of matter most central to the shaping of the material: melt, solid, powder, dispersion and solution, and vapor. With this approach, students learn processing fundamentals and appreciate the similarities and differences between the materials classes. The book uses a consistent nomenclature that allow for easier comparisons between various materials and processes. Emphasis is on fundamental principles that gives students a strong foundation for understanding processing and manufacturing methods. Development of connections between processing and structure builds on students’ existing knowledge of structure-property relationships. Examples of both standard and newer additive manufacturing methods throughout provide students with an overview of the methods that they will likely encounter in their careers. This book is intended primarily for upper-level undergraduates and beginning graduate students in Materials Science and Engineering who are already schooled in the structure and properties of metals, ceramics and polymers, and are ready to apply their knowledge to materials processing. It will also appeal to students from other engineering disciplines who have completed an introductory materials science and engineering course. Coverage of metal, ceramic and polymer processing in a single text provides a self-contained approach and consistent nomenclature that allow for easier comparisons between various materials and processes Emphasis on fundamental principles gives students a strong foundation for understanding processing and manufacturing methods Development of connections between processing and structure builds on students’ existing knowledge of structure - property relationships Examples of both standard and newer additive manufacturing methods throughout provide students with an overview of the methods that they will likely encounter in their careers

Fundamentals of Polymer Engineering, Third Edition

Fundamentals of Polymer Engineering, Third Edition
A Book

by Anil Kumar,Rakesh K. Gupta

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-12-07
  • Pages : 598
  • ISBN : 042967631X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Exploring the chemistry of synthesis, mechanisms of polymerization, reaction engineering of step-growth and chain-growth polymerization, polymer characterization, thermodynamics and structural, mechanical, thermal and transport behavior of polymers as melts, solutions and solids, Fundamentals of Polymer Engineering, Third Edition covers essential concepts and breakthroughs in reactor design and polymer production and processing. It contains modern theories and real-world examples for a clear understanding of polymer function and development. This fully updated edition addresses new materials, applications, processing techniques, and interpretations of data in the field of polymer science. It discusses the conversion of biomass and coal to plastics and fuels, the use of porous polymers and membranes for water purification, and the use of polymeric membranes in fuel cells. Recent developments are brought to light in detail, and there are new sections on the improvement of barrier properties of polymers, constitutive equations for polymer melts, additive manufacturing and polymer recycling. This textbook is aimed at senior undergraduate students and first year graduate students in polymer engineering and science courses, as well as professional engineers, scientists, and chemists. Examples and problems are included at the end of each chapter for concept reinforcement.