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Vegetable Oil-based Polymers

Vegetable Oil-based Polymers
Properties, Processing and Applications

by Niranjan Karak

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9781628703856
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The growing need to find a sustainable, environmentally-friendly replacement for petroleum-based materials is fuelling the development of bio-based polymers from renewable resources. Amongst the most promising of these are vegetable oil-based polymeric materials. Vegetable oil-based polymers provides a comprehensive review of the research in this important field. After an introduction to classification and polymerization, Vegetable oil-based polymers goes on to review the factors involved in polymer biodegradation. The extraction, purification and application of vegetable oils are then explored, along with vegetable oil-based polyesters and poly(ester amide)s, polyurethanes and epoxies. The book then reviews polyamides, polyolefins and vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polymers. It concludes with an analysis of vegetable oil-based polymer composites and polymer nanocomposites. Vegetable oil-based polymers is an indispensable guide for all those involved in the research and development of biopolymers as well as the wide range of industries looking for more sustainable polymer materials. Provides a comprehensive review of recent research in the area of vegetable oil-based polymeric materialsDiscusses vegetable oils and their derivatives, biodegradable polymers and the fundamentals of polymersExplores the extraction, purification and application of vegetable oils, along with vegetable oil-based polyesters and poly(ester amide)s, polyurethanes and epoxies.

Bio-Based Plant Oil Polymers and Composites

Bio-Based Plant Oil Polymers and Composites
A Book

by Samy Madbouly,Chaoqun Zhang,Michael R. Kessler

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2015-08-27
  • Pages : 230
  • ISBN : 0323371280
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Bio-based Plant Oil Polymers and Composites provides engineers and materials scientists a useful framework to help take advantage of the latest research conducted in this rapidly advancing field—enabling them to develop and commercialize their own products quickly and more successfully. Plant oil is one of the most attractive options as a substitute for non-renewable resources in polymers and composites, and is producing materials with very promising thermomechanical properties relative to traditional, petroleum-based polymers. In addition to critical processing and characterization information, the book assists engineers in deciding whether or not they should use a plant oil-based polymer over a petroleum-based polymer, discussing sustainability concerns, biodegradability, associated costs, and recommended applications. The book details the advancements in the development of polymeric materials and composites from plant oils, and provides a critical review of current applications in various fields, including packaging, biomedical, and automotive applications. Also includes the latest progress in developing multifunctional biobased polymers—by increasing thermal conductivity or adding antibacterial properties, for example. Essential coverage of processing, characterization, and the latest research into polymeric materials and composites derived from plant oils (thermoplastics, thermosets, nanocomposites, and fiber reinforced composites) Critically reviews the potential applications of plant oil-based polymers, including sensors, structural parts, medical devices, and automotive interiors Includes the latest developments in multifunctional bio-based polymer composites

Vegetable Oil-Based Polymers

Vegetable Oil-Based Polymers
Properties, Processing and Applications

by Niranjan Karak

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2012-07-10
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN : 0857097148
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The growing need to find a sustainable, environmentally-friendly replacement for petroleum-based materials is fuelling the development of bio-based polymers from renewable resources. Amongst the most promising of these are vegetable oil-based polymeric materials. Vegetable oil-based polymers provides a comprehensive review of the research in this important field. After an introduction to classification and polymerization, Vegetable oil-based polymers goes on to review the factors involved in polymer biodegradation. The extraction, purification and application of vegetable oils are then explored, along with vegetable oil-based polyesters and poly(ester amide)s, polyurethanes and epoxies. The book then reviews polyamides, polyolefins and vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polymers. It concludes with an analysis of vegetable oil-based polymer composites and polymer nanocomposites. Vegetable oil-based polymers is an indispensable guide for all those involved in the research and development of biopolymers as well as the wide range of industries looking for more sustainable polymer materials. Provides a comprehensive review of recent research in the area of vegetable oil-based polymeric materials Discusses vegetable oils and their derivatives, biodegradable polymers and the fundamentals of polymers Explores the extraction, purification and application of vegetable oils, along with vegetable oil-based polyesters and poly(ester amide)s, polyurethanes and epoxies

Vegetable Oil based Bio-lubricants and Transformer Fluids

Vegetable Oil based Bio-lubricants and Transformer Fluids
Applications in Power Plants

by Dhorali Gnanasekaran,Venkata Prasad Chavidi

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-09-08
  • Pages : 155
  • ISBN : 9811048703
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book discusses vegetable oil based biolubricants and their applications in the power distribution industry. Vegetable oil based lubricants offer significant advantages over petroleum-based lubricants, including biodegradability, cost-effectiveness, renewability, and lower environmental effects. This book provides a detailed literature survey of modified vegetable oils. It discusses the physical and chemical properties of vegetable oil, and their effects on its applications in tribology. The book discusses additives and enhancements to make vegetable oils suitable for use as lubricating oils and transformer oils in power plants and power distribution grids. The contents of the book will be useful to researchers and professionals as well as policy makers and standards agencies.

Manufacturing of Vegetable Oils-based Epoxy and Composites for Structural Applications

Manufacturing of Vegetable Oils-based Epoxy and Composites for Structural Applications
A Book

by Rongpeng Wang

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2014
  • Pages : 184
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"Epoxidized vegetable oil (EVO) is one of the largest industrial applications of vegetable oils (VOs) and is widely used as a plasticizer and as a synthetic intermediate for polyol or unsaturated polyester. However, the utility of EVO as monomer for high performance epoxy thermoset polymer is limited by its reactivity and by the resulting physical properties. Herein, VO-based epoxy monomers, i.e., glycidyl esters of epoxidized fatty acids derived from soybean oil (EGS) or linseed oil (EGL), have been synthesized and were benchmarked against commercial available diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and also epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) controls. EGS and EGL possessed higher oxirane content, more reactivity and lower viscosity than ESO or epoxidized linseed oil (ELO), provided better compatibility with DGEBA as a reactive diluent, and yielded thermally and mechanically stronger polymers than polymers obtained using ESO. Glass transition temperatures (T[subscript g]) of the VO-based epoxy thermoset polymers were mostly a function of monomer oxirane content with some added structural influences of epoxy reactivity, and presence of a pendant chain. Organo-modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) and long glass fiber reinforced composites (FRC) were efficiently manufactured using anhydride cured EGS as matrices. The OMMT nanocomposites showed higher mechanical and thermal strength than the neat polymers but were also dependent on the dispersion techniques and the clay concentration. Surprisingly, the neat EGS-anhydride matrix FRC showed comparable properties, such as flexural and impact strengths and slightly lower T[subscript g], versus DGEBA based counterparts. These high performance monomers, polymers, and composites have potential to replace petroleum-based epoxy as value-added products from VOs compared to EVOs"--Abstract, page iv.

Encyclopedia of Renewable and Sustainable Materials

Encyclopedia of Renewable and Sustainable Materials
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2020-01-09
  • Pages : 4252
  • ISBN : 0128131969
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Encyclopedia of Renewable and Sustainable Materials provides a comprehensive overview, covering research and development on all aspects of renewable, recyclable and sustainable materials. The use of renewable and sustainable materials in building construction, the automotive sector, energy, textiles and others can create markets for agricultural products and additional revenue streams for farmers, as well as significantly reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, manufacturing energy requirements, manufacturing costs and waste. This book provides researchers, students and professionals in materials science and engineering with tactics and information as they face increasingly complex challenges around the development, selection and use of construction and manufacturing materials. Covers a broad range of topics not available elsewhere in one resource Arranged thematically for ease of navigation Discusses key features on processing, use, application and the environmental benefits of renewable and sustainable materials Contains a special focus on sustainability that will lead to the reduction of carbon emissions and enhance protection of the natural environment with regard to sustainable materials

Biodegradable and Biobased Polymers for Environmental and Biomedical Applications

Biodegradable and Biobased Polymers for Environmental and Biomedical Applications
A Book

by Susheel Kalia,Luc Avérous

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2016-01-29
  • Pages : 515
  • ISBN : 1119117356
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume incorporates 13 contributions from renowned experts from the relevant research fields that are related biodegradable and biobased polymers and their environmental and biomedical applications. Specifically, the book highlights: Developments in polyhydroxyalkanoates applications in agriculture, biodegradable packaging material and biomedical field like drug delivery systems, implants, tissue engineering and scaffolds The synthesis and elaboration of cellulose microfibrils from sisal fibres for high performance engineering applications in various sectors such as the automotive and aerospace industries, or for building and construction The different classes and chemical modifications of tannins Electro-activity and applications of Jatropha latex and seed The synthesis, properties and applications of poly(lactic acid) The synthesis, processing and properties of poly(butylene succinate), its copolymers, composites and nanocomposites The different routes for preparation polymers from vegetable oil and the effects of reinforcement and nano-reinforcement on the physical properties of such biobased polymers The different types of modified drug delivery systems together with the concept of the drug delivery matrix for controlled release of drugs and for antitumor drugs The use of nanocellulose as sustainable adsorbents for the removal of water pollutants mainly heavy metal ions, organic molecules, dyes, oil and CO2 The main extraction techniques, structure, properties and different chemical modifications of lignins Proteins and nucleic acids based biopolymers The role of tamarind seed polysaccharide-based multiple-unit systems in sustained drug release

Plant and Animal Based Composites

Plant and Animal Based Composites
A Book

by Kaushik Kumar,J. Paulo Davim

  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release : 2021-01-18
  • Pages : 164
  • ISBN : 3110695375
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The increasing demand for environmentally friendly materials and the need for cheaper fibres points the search in the direction of natural products such as bark, leaves, scales or shells. The aim of this book is to provide a forum to review the recent advances in the area of plant and animal-based composites and identify possible trends for further developments.

Environmentally Friendly Polymers and Polymer Composites

Environmentally Friendly Polymers and Polymer Composites
A Book

by Rafael Balart,Nestor Montanes,Franco Dominici,Sergio Torres-Giner

  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release : 2021-03-17
  • Pages : 292
  • ISBN : 3036500367
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Continuous research advances have been observed in the field of environmentally-friendly polymers and polymer composites due to the dependence of polymers on fossil fuels and the sustainability issues related to plastic wastes. This book compiles the most recent research works in biopolymers, their blends and composites, and the use of natural additives, such as vegetable oils and other renewable and waste-derived liquids, with their marked environmental efficiency devoted to developing novel sustainable materials. Therefore, Environmentally Friendly Polymers and Polymer Composites provides an overview to scientists of the potential of these environmentally friendly materials and helps engineers to apply these new materials for industrial purposes.

Biomass and Green Chemistry

Biomass and Green Chemistry
Building a Renewable Pathway

by Sílvio Vaz Jr.

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-11-16
  • Pages : 252
  • ISBN : 331966736X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book investigates the main vegetable biomass types, their chemical characteristics and their potential to replace oil as raw material for the chemical industry, according to the principles of green chemistry. Authors from different scientific and technical backgrounds, from industry and academia, give an overview of the state of the art and ongoing developments. Aspects including bioeconomy, biorefineries, renewable chemistry and sustainability are also considered, given their relevance in this context. Furthermore, the book reviews green chemistry principles and their relation to biomass, while also exploring the main processes for converting biomass into bioproducts. The need to develop renewable feedstock for the chemical industry to replace oil has been identified as a major strategic challenge for the 21st century. In this context, the use of different types of vegetable biomass – starch, lignocellulosic, oleaginous, saccharide and algae – can be seen as a viable alternative to the use of non-renewable, more expensive raw materials. Furthermore, it offers a model for adding economic value to the agro industrial chains such as soybean, sugarcane, corn and forests, among others. This will in turn contribute to the sustainability of a wide range of chemicals, mainly organics and their transformation processes, which are widely used by modern society.

Bio-based Resins, Polymers and Composites Based on Waste Vegetable Oil Valorisation

Bio-based Resins, Polymers and Composites Based on Waste Vegetable Oil Valorisation
A Book

by Felipe Cicaroni Fernandes

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Bio-based Polymers and Nanocomposites

Bio-based Polymers and Nanocomposites
Preparation, Processing, Properties & Performance

by Muhammed Lamin Sanyang,Mohammad Jawaid

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-02-05
  • Pages : 272
  • ISBN : 3030058255
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book highlights the various types of polymer and nanocomposites that can be derived from biorenewable resources. It covers various aspects of biobased polymers and nanocomposites, including preparation, processing, properties, and performance, and the latest advances in these materials. It also includes recent findings from leading researchers in academia and industry, government, and private research laboratories around the globe, providing the latest information on biobased polymers and nanocomposites. Offering an overview of the entire production process, it guides readers through all stages, from the raw source materials, processing and property characterization to application performance. This book is suitable for professionals and researchers seeking in-depth practical information as well as the fundamental science behind this. It also serves as a point of reference for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as postdoctoral researchers working in the area of polymer and composites with a special emphasis on biobased materials.

Handbook of Polymers for Pharmaceutical Technologies, Structure and Chemistry

Handbook of Polymers for Pharmaceutical Technologies, Structure and Chemistry
A Book

by Vijay Kumar Thakur,Manju Kumari Thakur

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2015-06-19
  • Pages : 552
  • ISBN : 111904135X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Polymers are one of the most fascinating materials of the present era finding their applications in almost every aspects of life. Polymers are either directly available in nature or are chemically synthesized and used depending upon the targeted applications.Advances in polymer science and the introduction of new polymers have resulted in the significant development of polymers with unique properties. Different kinds of polymers have been and will be one of the key in several applications in many of the advanced pharmaceutical research being carried out over the globe. This 4-partset of books contains precisely referenced chapters, emphasizing different kinds of polymers with basic fundamentals and practicality for application in diverse pharmaceutical technologies. The volumes aim at explaining basics of polymers based materials from different resources and their chemistry along with practical applications which present a future direction in the pharmaceutical industry. Each volume offer deep insight into the subject being treated. Volume 1: Structure and Chemistry Volume 2: Processing and Applications Volume 3: Biodegradable Polymers Volume 4: Bioactive and Compatible Synthetic/Hybrid Polymers

Eco-friendly Polymer Nanocomposites

Eco-friendly Polymer Nanocomposites
Processing and Properties

by Vijay Kumar Thakur,Manju Kumari Thakur

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-06-22
  • Pages : 579
  • ISBN : 8132224701
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book contains precisely referenced chapters, emphasizing environment-friendly polymer nanocomposites with basic fundamentals, practicality and alternatives to traditional nanocomposites through detailed reviews of different environmental friendly materials procured from different resources, their synthesis and applications using alternative green approaches. The book aims at explaining basics of eco-friendly polymer nanocomposites from different natural resources and their chemistry along with practical applications which present a future direction in the biomedical, pharmaceutical and automotive industry. The book attempts to present emerging economic and environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites that are free from side effects studied in the traditional nanocomposites. This book is the outcome of contributions by many experts in the field from different disciplines, with various backgrounds and expertises. This book will appeal to researchers as well as students from different disciplines. The content includes industrial applications and will fill the gap between the research works in laboratory to practical applications in related industries.

The Chemistry of Bio-based Polymers

The Chemistry of Bio-based Polymers
A Book

by Johannes Karl Fink

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2020-01-22
  • Pages : 588
  • ISBN : 1119681316
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The recent explosion of interdisciplinary research has fragmented the knowledge base surrounding renewable polymers. The Chemistry of Bio-based Polymers 2nd edition brings together, in one volume, the research and work of Professor Johannes Fink, focusing on biopolymers that can be synthesized from renewable polymers. After introducing general aspects of the field, the book’s subsequent chapters examine the chemistry of biodegradable polymeric types sorted by their chemical compounds, including the synthesis of low molecular compounds. Various categories of biopolymers are detailed including vinyl-based polymers, acid and lactone polymers, ester and amide polymers, carbohydrate-related polymers and others. Procedures for the preparation of biopolymers and biodegradable nanocomposites are arranged by chemical methods and in vitro biological methods, with discussion of the issue of “plastics from bacteria.” The factors influencing the degradation and biodegradation of polymers used in food packaging, exposed to various environments, are detailed at length. The book covers the medical applications of bio-based polymers, concentrating on controlled drug delivery, temporary prostheses, and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Professor Fink also addresses renewable resources for fabricating biofuels and argues for localized biorefineries, as biomass feedstocks are more efficiently handled locally.

Green Materials from Plant Oils

Green Materials from Plant Oils

by Zengshe Liu,George Kraus

  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2014-11-12
  • Pages : 323
  • ISBN : 1849739013
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Finding alternatives to fossil feedstocks is increasing in importance with the challenges of global warming, increasing oil prices and depleting fossil fuel reserves that we currently face. Today, plant oils are important renewable raw materials for the chemical industry and are heavily used for surfactants, cosmetic products and lubricants. This book covers the green chemistry of products and intermediates synthesised from plant oils. Photo-initiated polymerisation and polymerization of vegetable oils in environmental media are covered as well as click reactions to chemically modify vegetable oils. Useful products from plant oils such as polymers, biomaterials, biofibres and lubricants, as well as their further applications, are described. This book is a valuable resource for researchers in academia and industry, biomass producers and suppliers and manufacturers of end-products.

Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Polymeric Composites

Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Polymeric Composites
A Book

by Vijay Kumar Thakur,Manju Kumari Thakur,Michael R. Kessler

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2017-03-16
  • Pages : 736
  • ISBN : 111922442X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Handbook of Composites From Renewable Materials comprises a set of 8 individual volumes that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between the synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications and performance of these advanced materials. The handbook covers a multitude of natural polymers/ reinforcement/ fillers and biodegradable materials. Together, the 8 volumes total at least 5000 pages and offers a unique publication. This 6th volume Handbook is solely focused on Polymeric Composites. Some of the important topics include but not limited to: Keratin as renewable material for developing polymer composites; natural and synthetic matrices; hydrogels in tissue engineering; smart hydrogels: application in bioethanol production; principle renewable biopolymers; application of hydrogel biocomposites for multiple drug delivery; nontoxic holographic materials; bioplasticizer - epoxidized vegetable oils-based poly (lactic acid) blends and nanocomposites; preparation, characterization and adsorption properties of poly (DMAEA) – cross-linked starch gel copolymer in waste water treatments; study of chitosan crosslinking hydrogels for absorption of antifungal drugs using molecular modelling; pharmaceutical delivery systems composed of chitosan; eco-friendly polymers for food packaging; influence of surface modification on the thermal stability and percentage of crystallinity of natural abaca fiber; influence of the use of natural fibers in composite materials assessed on a life cycle perspective; plant polysaccharides-blended ionotropically-gelled alginate multiple-unit systems for sustained drug release; vegetable oil based polymer composites; applications of chitosan derivatives in wastewater treatment; novel lignin-based materials as a products for various applications; biopolymers from renewable resources and thermoplastic starch matrix as polymer units of multi-component polymer systems for advanced applications; chitosan composites: preparation and applications in removing water pollutants and recent advancements in biopolymer composites for addressing environmental issues.

Polymer Applications of Renewable-Resource Materials

Polymer Applications of Renewable-Resource Materials
A Book

by Charles E. Carraher Jr.,L.H. Sperling

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 469
  • ISBN : 1461335035
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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For there is hope of a tree, If it be cut down, That it will sprout again And that the tender branch Thereof will not cease. Job XIV (7) Mankind has been blessed with a multitude of resources. In the beginning he utilized almost soley replenishable items such as vegetation and animal protein, for both nourishment and shelter. Gradually, such metals as copper and iron were developed and replaced wood as a material of construction. Cement and glass, although more plentiful than other minerals, also replaced the use of growing sub stances. Coal and oil became the primary sources of heat and power. Closer to the focus of this book, petroleum products began to replace the vegetable oils, tannin, wool, cotton, leather, silk, rubber, etc. in a host of applications. Surely, it was argued, the new materials did the job better and cheaper. What they didn't say is that soon we would run out of oil. In any case, research on growing natural products, now called renewable resources, slowed, and these industries sought only to maintain their status quo. The 20th Century saw an unprecedented emphasis and dependence on nonrenewable resources as energy sources (petroleum, coal, ura nium) and the fabric of technology (drugs, clothing, shelter, tires, computer parts). The predawn of the 21st Century brings a reali zation that a cyclic shift back towards the use of renewable re sources for technological application is in order.

Bio-Based Epoxy Polymers, Blends, and Composites

Bio-Based Epoxy Polymers, Blends, and Composites
Synthesis, Properties, Characterization, and Applications

by Jyotishkumar Parameswaranpillai,Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa,Suchart Siengchin,Seno Jose

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2021-01-21
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 3527823611
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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State-of-the-art overview on bioepoxy polymers as well as their blends and composites -- covering all aspects from fundamentals to applications! Bioepoxy polymers is an emerging area and have attracted more and more attention due to their biodegradability and good thermo-mechanical performance. In recent years, research progress has been made in synthesis, processing, characterization, and applications of bioepoxy blends and composites. Bioepoxy polymers are very promising candidates to replace the traditional thermosetting nonbiodegradable polymers. Bio-Based Epoxy Polymers, Blends and Composites summaries recent research progress on bioepoxy polymers as well as their blends and composites. It covers aspects from synthesis, processing, various characterization techniques to broad spectrum of applications. It provides a correlation of physical properties with macro, micro and nanostructures of the materials. Moreover, research trends, future directions, and opportunities are also discussed. Attracts attention: Bioepoxy polymers are environmentally friendly and considered as a promising candidate to replace the traditional thermosetting nonbiodegradable polymers Highly application-oriented: Bioepoxy polymers can be used in a broad range of applications such as polymer foams, construction, aerospace, automobiles, self-healing systems One-stop reference: Covers all aspects of bioepoxy polymer, their blends and composites, such as synthesis, properties, processing, characterization and applications Broad audience: Attracts attention from both academia and industry

Bio-Based Polymers for Engineered Green Materials

Bio-Based Polymers for Engineered Green Materials
A Book

by Gianluca Tondi,Thomas Schnabel

  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release : 2020-05-20
  • Pages : 568
  • ISBN : 303928925X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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With daily signals, Nature is communicating us that its unconscious wicked exploitation is no more sustainable. Our socio-economic system focuses on production increasing without considering the consequences. We are intoxicating ourselves on a daily bases just to allow the system to perpetuate itself. The time to switch into more natural solutions is come and the scientific community is ready to offer more natural product with comparable performance then the market products we are used to deal with. This book collects a broad set of scientific examples in which research groups from all over the world, aim to replace fossil fuel-based solutions with biomass derived materials. In here, some of the most innovative developments in the field of bio-materials are reported considering topics which goes from biomass valorization to the synthesis of high preforming bio-based materials.