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When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America

When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America
A Book

by Ira Katznelson

  • Publisher : W. W. Norton & Company
  • Release : 2006-08-17
  • Pages : 272
  • ISBN : 0393347141
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A groundbreaking work that exposes the twisted origins of affirmative action. In this "penetrating new analysis" (New York Times Book Review) Ira Katznelson fundamentally recasts our understanding of twentieth-century American history and demonstrates that all the key programs passed during the New Deal and Fair Deal era of the 1930s and 1940s were created in a deeply discriminatory manner. Through mechanisms designed by Southern Democrats that specifically excluded maids and farm workers, the gap between blacks and whites actually widened despite postwar prosperity. In the words of noted historian Eric Foner, "Katznelson's incisive book should change the terms of debate about affirmative action, and about the last seventy years of American history."

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action
Racial Preference in Black and White

by Tim J. Wise

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2012-11-12
  • Pages : 200
  • ISBN : 1136078428
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Affirmative Action examines the larger structure of institutional white privilege in education, and compares the magnitude of white racial preference with the policies typically envisioned when the term "racial preference" is used. In doing so, the book demonstrates that the American system of education is both a reflection of and a contributor to a structure of institutionalized racism and racial preference for the dominant majority.

The Constitutional Logic of Affirmative Action

The Constitutional Logic of Affirmative Action
A Book

by Ronald J. Fiscus

  • Publisher : Duke University Press
  • Release : 1992-01-30
  • Pages : 175
  • ISBN : 0822382261
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Few issues are as mired in rhetoric and controversy as affirmative action. This is certainly no less true now as when Ronald J. Fiscus’s The Constitutional Logic of Affirmative Action was first published in 1992. The controversy has, perhaps, become more charged over the past few years. With this compelling and rigorously reasoned argument for a constitutional rationale of affirmative action, Fiscus clarifies the moral and legal ramifications of this complex subject and presents an important view in the context of the ongoing debate. Beginning with a distinction drawn between principles of compensatory and distributive justice, Fiscus argues that the former, although often the basis for judgments made in individual discrimination cases, cannot sufficiently justify broad programs of affirmative action. Only a theory of distributive justice, one that assumes minorities have a right to what they would have gained proportionally in a nonracist society, can persuasively provide that justification. On this basis, the author argues in favor of proportional racial quotas—and challenges the charge of “reverse discrimination” raised in protest in the name of the “innocent victims” of affirmative action—as an action necessary to approach the goals of fairness and equality. The Constitutional Logic of Affirmative Action focuses on Supreme Court affirmative action rulings from Bakke (1976) to Croson (1989) and includes an epilogue by editor Stephen L. Wasby that considers developments through 1995. General readers concerned with racial justice, affirmative action, and public policy, as well as legal specialists and constitutional scholars will find Fiscus’s argument passionate, balanced, and persuasive.

Not All Black and White

Not All Black and White
Affirmative Action, Race, and American Values

by Christopher F. Edley

  • Publisher : Macmillan
  • Release : 1998-03-04
  • Pages : 294
  • ISBN : 9780374525415
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Argues that affirmative action laws are essential to American social justice and racial equality

The Affirmative Action Puzzle

The Affirmative Action Puzzle
A Living History from Reconstruction to Today

by Melvin I. Urofsky

  • Publisher : Pantheon
  • Release : 2020-01-28
  • Pages : 592
  • ISBN : 1101870885
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A rich, multifaceted history of affirmative action from the Civil Rights Act of 1866 through today’s tumultuous times From acclaimed legal historian, author of a biography of Louis Brandeis (“Remarkable” —Anthony Lewis, The New York Review of Books, “Definitive”—Jeffrey Rosen, The New Republic) and Dissent and the Supreme Court (“Riveting”—Dahlia Lithwick, The New York Times Book Review), a history of affirmative action from its beginning with the Civil Rights Act of 1866 to the first use of the term in 1935 with the enactment of the National Labor Relations Act (the Wagner Act) to 1961 and John F. Kennedy’s Executive Order 10925, mandating that federal contractors take “affirmative action” to ensure that there be no discrimination by “race, creed, color, or national origin” down to today’s American society. Melvin Urofsky explores affirmative action in relation to sex, gender, and education and shows that nearly every public university in the country has at one time or another instituted some form of affirmative action plan--some successful, others not. Urofsky traces the evolution of affirmative action through labor and the struggle for racial equality, writing of World War I and the exodus that began when some six mil­lion African Americans moved northward between 1910 and 1960, one of the greatest internal migrations in the country’s history. He describes how Harry Truman, after becoming president in 1945, fought for Roosevelt’s Fair Employment Practice Act and, surprising everyone, appointed a distinguished panel to serve as the President’s Commission on Civil Rights, as well as appointing the first black judge on a federal appeals court in 1948 and, by executive order later that year, ordering full racial integration in the armed forces. In this important, ambitious, far-reaching book, Urofsky writes about the affirmative action cases decided by the Supreme Court: cases that either upheld or struck down particular plans that affected both governmental and private entities. We come to fully understand the societal impact of affirmative action: how and why it has helped, and inflamed, people of all walks of life; how it has evolved; and how, and why, it is still needed.

Affirmative Action in China and the U.S.

Affirmative Action in China and the U.S.
A Dialogue on Inequality and Minority Education

by M. Zhou,A. Hill

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2009-10-12
  • Pages : 268
  • ISBN : 0230100929
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume is the first to comprehensively examine Chinese's affirmative action policies in the critical area of minority education, the most important conduit to employment and economic success in the PRC after the economic reforms begun in the late 1970s.

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action
A Book

by John W Johnson,Robert P. Green Jr.

  • Publisher : Greenwood
  • Release : 2009-05-19
  • Pages : 199
  • ISBN : 0313081328
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Affirmative Action recounts the fascinating history of a civil rights provision considered vital to protecting and promoting equality, but still bitterly contested in the courts—and in the court of public opinion.

Invisible Victims

Invisible Victims
White Males and the Crisis of Affirmative Action

by Frederick R. Lynch

  • Publisher : Praeger Pub Text
  • Release : 1991
  • Pages : 237
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"There is nothing quite like Frederick Lynch's book which describes how affirmative action works in real life, and points to some very disturbing effects." Nathan Glazer, Harvard University

White Men on Race

White Men on Race
Power, Privilege, and the Shaping of Cultural Consciousness

by Joe R. Feagin,Eileen O'Brien

  • Publisher : Beacon Press
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 275
  • ISBN : 9780807009833
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"White Men on Race illustrates the way privileged white men think about others; it is a major contribution to our understanding of racial privilege and its denial in our society." —Hernán Vera, author of Screen Saviors: Hollywood Fictions of Whiteness Based on the revealing and provocative testimony of approximately one hundred powerful, upper-income white men, White Men on Race shows how white men see racial "others," how they see white America, how they view racial conflicts, and what they expect for the future of the country. Covering a range of topics, from how they first encountered black Americans to views on black families, interracial dating, affirmative action, immigration, crime, and intervening in discriminatory situations, these hundred white men enlighten us on the racial perspectives of the country's white male elites as we enter the twenty-first century. "Pulitzer prize nominee Joe Feagin's tremendous body of work consistently has placed race, class, and gender at the center of analysis. Feagin has been a leading social scientist in this area and a scholar relentless in his focus on power, privilege, and issues of discrimination. White Men on Race adds to his voluminous oeuvre by providing penetrating insights into the range of racial attitudes of the upper class in the U.S. Here Feagin and O'Brien's compelling analysis of rare data is quite provocative and illuminating." —Dr. Bernice McNair Barnett, associate professor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Affirmative Action at a Crossroads: Fisher and Forward

Affirmative Action at a Crossroads: Fisher and Forward
ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 41, Number 4

by Edna Chun,Alvin Evans

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2015-05-20
  • Pages : 144
  • ISBN : 111912493X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The urgency of developing workable race-neutral admissions strategies that maximize the benefits of student diversity has increased. This practical guide offers: concrete recommendations and strategies for the creation of a campus ecosystem that maximizes the structural, curricular, and interactional benefits of diversity, extensive empirical findings and a rich research literature, opportunities for campuses to craft programs, processes, and intervention that maximize student learning outcomes related to diversity, and alternative strategies for addressing disadvantage, including the use of socioeconomic status and state-based percent plans. This book provides a comprehensive overview of key issues and strategic approaches that will assist institutions of higher education in fostering demographic diversity and building inclusive and welcoming campus environments. This is the fourth issue of the 41st volume of the Jossey-Bass series ASHE Higher Education Report. Each monograph is the definitive analysis of a tough higher education issue, based on thorough research of pertinent literature and institutional experiences. Topics are identified by a national survey. Noted practitioners and scholars are then commissioned to write the reports, with experts providing critical reviews of each manuscript before publication.

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action
Still Necessary or Unfair Advantage?

by The New York Times Editorial Staff

  • Publisher : The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc
  • Release : 2020-07-15
  • Pages : 224
  • ISBN : 1642823198
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Affirmative action is a set of laws or policies that favors disenfranchised groups in efforts to compensate for the discriminatory practices of the past. The term first appeared in U.S. legislature in the 1930s, and has taken many forms. It has championed for those who have been discriminated against for their age, class, gender, race, or physical ability. Affirmative action has addressed discrimination in housing rights, employment, pay equality, civil rights, and academic admissions. These New York Times stories chronicle some of our government's greatest applications of affirmative action, when it has failed, how the perception of it has evolved, and where it will take equality in the future. Media literacy questions and terms are included to further engage readers with the collection.

Perceptions of Compensation Fund Employees Towards Affirmative Action

Perceptions of Compensation Fund Employees Towards Affirmative Action
A Book

by Leslie Seth Kgapola

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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South Africa's legacy of apartheid has created massive social and economic inequalities along racial and gender lines, resulting for instance, in the under-representation of Blacks and women in the higher echelons of industry and at decision-making levels in the public service. In order to eradicate historical discriminatory employment policies and practices in the workplace based on race, gender and disability and redress imbalances, in 1998 Parliament enacted the Employment Equity legislation, which describes measures through which organisations should speed up their transformation efforts. These measures are collectively known as affirmative action. Affirmative action was conceived as a vehicle that would improve the employment and promotion opportunities of Blacks, women and the disabled. However, the goal of transforming South African business organisations and public service from discriminatory structures to ones which reflect the demographic composition and values of South African as a whole has not been without controversy. Given the racial construction of privilege and discrimination in South Africa, affirmative action evokes strong emotions from designated group and 'non-designated group members' demographic status, histories of relative deprivation, personal and collective interests and political ideologies leading to a polarisation of attitudes towards affirmative action. While some people view affirmative action as an antidote to past discrimination against Blacks, women and the disabled, others believe affirmative action promotes discrimination against Whites and in particular White males. Social policies that are perceived disproportionately to help Blacks or women, in general, and affirmative action programme, in particular, have emerged as a major socio-political battleground in South Africa. There is a long history of economic and employment discrimination in South Africa, and government-supported interventions, such as affirmative-action programmes, have been designed to increase employment opportunities for Blacks and women in organisational contexts in which they have been historically underrepresented. Although affirmative-action programmes have provided important economic benefits to Blacks and women, public debate about affirmative action programmes have been framed in terms of race and gender. Affirmative action has emerged as one of the most controversial policies in South Africa and is under attack. This study was conducted with employees from the Compensation Fund in Pretoria. Sixteen semi-structured interviews, ranging from between 20 and 30 minutes, were conducted with the aid of an in-depth personal interview schedule, using convenience sampling technique. The interview schedule had four sections in line with the problem statements and contained qualitative type questions. The purpose of the present exploratory study aimed to gain insight into the attitudes, experiences and perceptions of the Compensation Fund employees towards affirmative action. Findings of the study indicate that the dominant perception of the non-designated group (White participants) is that the recruitment, accomplishment and promotion of employees from the designated group is related only to demographic status, rather than qualifications, competences and personal effort as well. Race and gender appear to be operant dimensions along which Whites who could do the job are symbolically set apart from Blacks and women who were supposedly employed in the interest of getting the numbers right. Racial and gender prejudices emerged as the two main themes of the study. The dissertation interprets the participants' racial and gender prejudice in terms of Blumer's Group Position Model. The Group Position Model states that when an in-group perceives it's group position to be threatened it results in racial (gender) hostility towards the out-group. In terms of this research's findings, the non-designated group (White males) constitute the in-group, while the designated group (Blacks and women) constitute the out-group. The model adequately explains the negativity of the non-designated group towards affirmative action. This study represents a vital step towards a better understanding of the successful implementation of affirmative action and should contribute to more efficient and effective practice of affirmative action in the workplace.

America in Black and White

America in Black and White
One Nation, Indivisible

by Stephan Thernstrom,Abigail Thernstrom

  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Release : 2009-07-14
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 9781439129098
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In a book destined to become a classic, Stephan and Abigail Thernstrom present important new information about the positive changes that have been achieved and the measurable improvement in the lives of the majority of African-Americans. Supporting their conclusions with statistics on education, earnings, and housing, they argue that the perception of serious racial divisions in this country is outdated -- and dangerous.

Affirmative Action at Work

Affirmative Action at Work
Law, Politics, and Ethics

by Bron Raymond Taylor

  • Publisher : University of Pittsburgh Pre
  • Release : 1991-10-15
  • Pages : 272
  • ISBN : 0822974525
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Bron Taylor unites theoretical and applied social science to analyze a salient contemporary moral and political problem. Three decades after the passage of civil rights laws, criteria for hiring and promotion to redress past discrimination and the sensitive “quota” question are still unresolved issues. Taylor reviews the works of prominent social scientists and philosophers on the moral and legal principles underlying affirmative action, and examines them in light of his own empirical study. Using participant observation, in-depth interviewing, and a detailed questionnaire, he examines the attitudes of four groups in the California Department of Parks and Recreation: male and female, white and nonwhite workers. Because the department has implemented a strong program for ten years, its employees have had firsthand experience with affirmative action. Their views about the rights of minorities in the economy are often surprising. This work presents a comprehensive picture of the cross-pressures-the racial fears and antagonisms, the moral, ethical, and religious views about fairness and opportunity, the rigid ideas-that guide popular attitudes.

Protesting Affirmative Action

Protesting Affirmative Action
The Struggle over Equality after the Civil Rights Revolution

by Dennis Deslippe

  • Publisher : JHU Press
  • Release : 2012-03-01
  • Pages : 296
  • ISBN : 1421404311
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In studying this phenomenon, Deslippe deepens our understanding of American democracy and neoconservatism in the late twentieth century and shows how the liberals’ often contradictory positions of the 1960s and 1970s reflect the conflicted views about affirmative action many Americans still hold today.

Fear Itself: The New Deal and the Origins of Our Time

Fear Itself: The New Deal and the Origins of Our Time
A Book

by Ira Katznelson

  • Publisher : W. W. Norton & Company
  • Release : 2013-03-01
  • Pages : 720
  • ISBN : 0871406608
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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“A powerful argument, swept along by Katznelson’s robust prose and the imposing scholarship that lies behind it.”—Kevin Boyle, New York Times Book Review A work that “deeply reconceptualizes the New Deal and raises countless provocative questions” (David Kennedy), Fear Itself changes the ground rules for our understanding of this pivotal era in American history. Ira Katznelson examines the New Deal through the lens of a pervasive, almost existential fear that gripped a world defined by the collapse of capitalism and the rise of competing dictatorships, as well as a fear created by the ruinous racial divisions in American society. Katznelson argues that American democracy was both saved and distorted by a Faustian collaboration that guarded racial segregation as it built a new national state to manage capitalism and assert global power. Fear Itself charts the creation of the modern American state and “how a belief in the common good gave way to a central government dominated by interest-group politics and obsessed with national security” (Louis Menand, The New Yorker).

Affirmative Action and the Stalled Quest for Black Progress

Affirmative Action and the Stalled Quest for Black Progress
A Book

by Willie Avon Drake,Robert D. Holsworth

  • Publisher : University of Illinois Press
  • Release : 1996
  • Pages : 214
  • ISBN : 9780252065392
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Essential reading for anyone hoping to understand the national controversy about set-asides and other forms of affirmative action. "I strongly recommend this book to sociologists, political scientists, politicians, and business leaders as an analysis of race relations and economic development." -- Lewis M. Killian, author of Black and White: Reflections of a White Southern Sociologist This path-breaking study examines the accomplishments and limitations of the set-aside programs that have moved to the center of national political debate about affirmative action in the United States. Balanced yet candid, it focuses on the landmark case of Richmond v. Croson, in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled against the city of Richmond's set-aside program, which required that thirty percent of the money in city construction contracts be awarded to minority firms. The authors describe the politics that gave rise to the set-aside program, investigate its actual operation, explore its effects, and detail responses to it in both black and white communities. They document that, while the program served important political purposes, it produced limited economic benefits for the broader African-American community, and conclude with an examination of the politics of development as an alternative to the set-aside framework that has been central to urban politics.

The Ironies of Affirmative Action

The Ironies of Affirmative Action
Politics, Culture, and Justice in America

by John David Skrentny

  • Publisher : University of Chicago Press
  • Release : 1996-05
  • Pages : 312
  • ISBN : 0226761789
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Describes the origins of affirmative action in the conditions of the late 1960s and early 1970s, explains how it seemed to produce results when "color-blind" policies--which often allowed other inequalities--did not, and discusses its limitations and some

White Racism

White Racism
The Basics

by Joe R. Feagin,Hernan Vera,Pinar Batur

  • Publisher : Psychology Press
  • Release : 2001
  • Pages : 292
  • ISBN : 0415924618
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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First published in 2001. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Colorblindness, Post-raciality, and Whiteness in the United States

Colorblindness, Post-raciality, and Whiteness in the United States
A Book

by Sherrow O. Pinder

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-12-27
  • Pages : 216
  • ISBN : 1137431105
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book problematizes the ways in which the discourses of colorblindness and post-raciality are articulated in the age of Obama. Pinder debunks the myth that race does not matter and reconsiders the presumptive hegemony of whiteness through the dialectics of visibility and invisibility of race.