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Why Programs Fail

Why Programs Fail
A Guide to Systematic Debugging

by Andreas Zeller

  • Publisher : Morgan Kaufmann
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 448
  • ISBN : 1558608664
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Debugging has undergone a sea change in recent years. Increasing processing power has allowed for the creation of much more sophisticated software tools for the analysis and debugging of programs. This in turn has allowed debugging to graduate from a black art to a systematic discipline. The time is right to summarize this new advanced approach to debugging. Why Programs Fail is about bugs in computer programs, how to reproduce them, how to find them, and how to fix them in such a way that they do not occur anymore. This is the first comprehensive book on systematic debugging and covers a wide range of tools and techniques ranging from hands-on observation to fully automated diagnoses, and includes instructions for building automated debuggers. This discussion is built upon a solid theory of how failures occur, rather than relying on seat-of-the-pants techniques, which are of little help with large software systems or to those learning to program. Andreas Zeller is well known in the programming community for developing the GNU Data Display Debugger (DDD), a tool that visualizes the data structures of a program while it is running. Over 250,000 users as well as all major software companies use DDD for software development. Zeller is also the creator of the popular "Ask Igor" website that will automatically debug programs over the web, and he regularly speaks and consults in the USA.

Why Programs Fail, 2nd Edition

Why Programs Fail, 2nd Edition
A Book

by Andreas Zeller

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 544
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Why Programs Fail: A Guide to Systematic Debugging is proof that debugging has graduated from a black art to a systematic discipline. It demystifies one of the toughest aspects of software programming, showing clearly how to discover what caused software failures, and fix them with minimal muss and fuss. The fully updated second edition includes 100+ pages of new material, including new chapters on Verifying Code, Predicting Erors, and Preventing Errors. Cutting-edge tools such as FindBUGS and AGITAR are explained, techniques from integrated environments like Jazz.net are highlighted, and all-new demos with ESC/Java and Spec#, Eclipse and Mozilla are included. This complete and pragmatic overview of debugging is authored by Andreas Zeller, the talented researcher who developed the GNU Data Display Debugger(DDD), a tool that over 250,000 professionals use to visualize the data structures of programs while they are running. Unlike other books on debugging, Zeller's text is product agnostic, appropriate for all programming languages and skill levels. The book explains best practices ranging from systematically tracking error reports, to observing symptoms, reproducing errors, and correcting defects. It covers a wide range of tools and techniques from hands-on observation to fully automated diagnoses, and also explores the author's innovative techniques for isolating minimal input to reproduce an error and for tracking cause and effect through a program. It even includes instructions on how to create automated debugging tools. The text includes exercises and extensive references for further study, and a companion website with source code for all examples and additional debugging resources is available. The new edition of this award-winning productivity-booster is for any developer who has ever been frustrated by elusive bugs Brand new chapters demonstrate cutting-edge debugging techniques and tools, enabling readers to put the latest time-saving developments to work for them Learn by doing. New exercises and detailed examples focus on emerging tools, languages and environments, including AGITAR, FindBUGS, Python and Eclipse.

Why Programs Fail

Why Programs Fail
A Guide to Systematic Debugging

by Andreas Zeller

  • Publisher : Morgan Kaufmann
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0123745152
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This fully updated second edition includes 100+ pages of new material, including new chapters on Verifying Code, Predicting Errors, and Preventing Errors. Cutting-edge tools such as FindBUGS and AGITAR are explained, techniques from integrated environments like Jazz.net are highlighted, and all-new demos with ESC/Java and Spec#, Eclipse and Mozilla are included. This complete and pragmatic overview of debugging is authored by Andreas Zeller, the talented researcher who developed the GNU Data Display Debugger(DDD), a tool that over 250,000 professionals use to visualize the data structures of programs while they are running. Unlike other books on debugging, Zeller's text is product agnostic, appropriate for all programming languages and skill levels. Why Programs Fail explains best practices ranging from systematically tracking error reports, to observing symptoms, reproducing errors, and correcting defects. It covers a wide range of tools and techniques from hands-on observation to fully automated diagnoses, and also explores the author's innovative techniques for isolating minimal input to reproduce an error and for tracking cause and effect through a program. It even includes instructions on how to create automated debugging tools. The new edition of this award-winning productivity-booster is for any developer who has ever been frustrated by elusive bugs. Brand new chapters demonstrate cutting-edge debugging techniques and tools, enabling readers to put the latest time-saving developments to work for them. Learn by doing. New exercises and detailed examples focus on emerging tools, languages and environments, including AGITAR, FindBUGS, Python and Eclipse. The text includes exercises and extensive references for further study, and a companion website with source code for all examples and additional debugging resources.

Why Government Programs Fail

Why Government Programs Fail
Improving Policy Implementation

by James S. Larson

  • Publisher : Greenwood
  • Release : 1980
  • Pages : 124
  • ISBN : 9780275905118
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Why Government Fails So Often

Why Government Fails So Often
A Book

by Peter H. Schuck

  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Release : 2015-08-25
  • Pages : 488
  • ISBN : 0691168539
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"From healthcare to workplace conduct, the federal government is taking on ever more responsibility for managing our lives. At the same time, Americans have never been more disaffected with Washington, seeing it as an intrusive, incompetent, wasteful giant. The most alarming consequence of ineffective policies, in addition to unrealized social goals, is the growing threat to the government's democratic legitimacy. Understanding why government fails so often--and how it might become more effective--is an urgent responsibility of citizenship. In this book, lawyer and political scientist Peter Schuck provides a wide range of examples and an enormous body of evidence to explain why so many domestic policies go awry--and how to right the foundering ship of state.Schuck argues that Washington's failures are due not to episodic problems or partisan bickering, but rather to deep structural flaws that undermine every administration, Democratic and Republican. These recurrent weaknesses include unrealistic goals, perverse incentives, poor and distorted information, systemic irrationality, rigidity and lack of credibility, a mediocre bureaucracy, powerful and inescapable markets, and the inherent limits of law. To counteract each of these problems, Schuck proposes numerous achievable reforms, from avoiding moral hazard in student loan, mortgage, and other subsidy programs, to empowering consumers of public services, simplifying programs and testing them for cost-effectiveness, and increasing the use of "big data." The book also examines successful policies--including the G.I. Bill, the Voting Rights Act, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and airline deregulation--to highlight the factors that made them work.An urgent call for reform, Why Government Fails So Often is essential reading for anyone curious about why government is in such disrepute and how it can do better"--

Why Boys Fail

Why Boys Fail
Saving Our Sons from an Educational System That's Leaving Them Behind

by Richard Whitmire

  • Publisher : AMACOM
  • Release : 2011-09-30
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 0814420362
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Selected as one of the Top 5 Educational Books by Literacy News The signs and statistics are undeniable: boys are falling behind in school. Contrary to conventional wisdom, the biggest culprits are not video games, pop culture, or female-dominated schools biased toward girls. The real problem is that boys have been thrust into a bewildering new school environment that demands high-level reading and writing skills long before they are capable of handling them. Lacking the ability to compete, boys fall farther and farther behind. Eventually, the problem gets pushed into college, where close to 60% of the graduates are women. In a time when even cops, construction foremen, and machine operators need post-high school degrees, that's a problem. Why Boys Fail takes a hard look at how this ominous reality came to be, how it has worsened in recent years, and why attempts to resolve it often devolve into finger-pointing and polarizing politics. But the book also shares some good news. Amidst the alarming proof of failure among boys-around the world-there are also inspiring case studies of schools where something is going right. Each has come up with realistic ways to make sure that every student-male and female-has the tools to succeed in school and later in life. Educators and parents alike will take heart in these promising developments, and heed the book's call to action-not only to demand solutions but also to help create them for their own students and children.

Out of Poverty

Out of Poverty
What Works When Traditional Approaches Fail

by Paul Polak

  • Publisher : Berrett-Koehler Publishers
  • Release : 2009-09-14
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 1605098957
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Based on his 25 years of experience, Polak explodes what he calls the "Three Great Poverty Eradication Myths": that we can donate people out of poverty, that national economic growth will end poverty, and that Big Business, operating as it does now, will end poverty. Polak shows that programs based on these ideas have utterly failed--in fact, in sub-Saharan Africa poverty rates have actually gone up. These failed top-down efforts contrast sharply with the grassroots approach Polak and IDE have championed: helping the dollar-a-day poor earn more money through their own efforts. Amazingly enough, unexploited market opportunities do exist for the desperately poor. Polak describes how he and others have identified these opportunities and have developed innovative, low-cost tools that have helped in lifting 17 million people out of poverty.

Why Digital Transformations Fail

Why Digital Transformations Fail
The Surprising Disciplines of How to Take Off and Stay Ahead

by Tony Saldanha

  • Publisher : Berrett-Koehler Publishers
  • Release : 2019-07-23
  • Pages : 216
  • ISBN : 1523085363
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Former Procter & Gamble Vice President for IT and Shared Services, Tony Saldanha gives you the keys to a successful digital transformation: a proven five-stage model and a disciplined process for executing it. Digital transformation is more important than ever now that we're in the Fourth Industrial Revolution, where the lines between the physical, digital, and biological worlds are becoming ever more blurred. But fully 70 percent of digital transformations fail. Why? Tony Saldanha, a globally awarded industry thought-leader who led operations around the world and major digital changes at Procter & Gamble, discovered it's not due to innovation or technological problems. Rather, the devil is in the details: a lack of clear goals and a disciplined process for achieving them. In this book, Saldanha lays out a five-stage process for moving from digitally automating processes here and there to making digital technology the very backbone of your company. For each of these five stages, Saldanha describes two associated disciplines vital to the success of that stage and a checklist of questions to keep you on track. You want to disrupt before you are disrupted—be the next Netflix, not the next Blockbuster. Using dozens of case studies and his own considerable experience, Saldanha shows how digital transformation can be made routinely successful, and instead of representing an existential threat, it will become the opportunity of a lifetime.

Fail U.

Fail U.
The False Promise of Higher Education

by Charles J. Sykes

  • Publisher : St. Martin's Press
  • Release : 2016-08-09
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN : 1250091764
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The cost of a college degree has increased by 1,125% since 1978—four times the rate of inflation. Total student debt has surpassed $1.3 trillion. Nearly two thirds of all college students must borrow to study, and the average student graduates with more than $30,000 in debt. Many college graduates under twenty-five years old are unemployed or underemployed. And professors—remember them?—rarely teach undergraduates at many major universities, instead handing off their lecture halls to cheaper teaching assistants. So, is it worth it? That’s the question Charles J. Sykes attempts to answer in Fail U., exploring the staggering costs of a college education, the sharp decline in tenured faculty and teaching loads, the explosion of administrative jobs, the grandiose building plans, and the utter lack of preparedness for the real world that many now graduates face. Fail U. offers a different vision of higher education; one that is affordable, more productive, and better-suited to meet the needs of a diverse range of students—and one that will actually be useful in their future careers and lives.

The No Fail Diet

The No Fail Diet
The Easy 4-Step Plan For Permanent Weight Loss

by Leslie Beck

  • Publisher : Penguin Canada
  • Release : 2008-01-01
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 014318444X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The No-Fail Diet is a nutritionally balanced, easy-to-follow, and realistic diet plan that will help you lose weight and keep it off permanently. No counting calories, fat grams, or carbohydrate grams-it's a healthy eating plan that fits into real life. The No-Fail Diet will help you - lose up to 30 pounds in 12 weeks - achieve and maintain a healthy weight - look and feel great - increase your energy - stay healthy and active as you age Written by leading nutritionist Leslie Beck, The No-Fail Diet includes: - four flexible weight-loss meal plans - a day-by-day menu plan with meal and snack ideas and healthy eating tips - over 80 delicious and easy-to-prepare recipes - a 12-week fitness plan with almost 100 demonstration photographs - tracking tools to keep you motivated and enhance success

ADKAR

ADKAR
A Model for Change in Business, Government, and Our Community

by Jeff Hiatt

  • Publisher : Prosci
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 146
  • ISBN : 9781930885509
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In his first complete text on the ADKAR model, Jeff Hiatt explains the origin of the model and explores what drives each building block of ADKAR. Learn how to build awareness, create desire, develop knowledge, foster ability and reinforce changes in your organization. The ADKAR Model is changing how we think about managing the people side of change, and provides a powerful foundation to help you succeed at change.After more than 14 years of research with corporate change, the ADKAR model has emerged as a holistic approach that brings together the collection of change management work into a simple, results oriented model. This model ties together all aspects of change management including readiness assessments, sponsorship, communications, coaching, training and resistance management. All of these activities are placed into a framework that is oriented on the required phases for realizing change with individuals and the organization.The ADKAR perspective can help you develop a new lens through which to observe and influence change. You may be working for change in your public school system or in a small city council. You may be sponsoring change in your department at work. You may be observing large changes that are being attempted at the highest levels of government or you may be leading an enterprise-wide change initiative. The perspective enabled by the ADKAR model allows you to view change in a new way. You can begin to see the barrier points and understand the levers that can move your changes forward. ADKAR allows you to understand why some changes succeed while others fail. Most importantly, ADKAR can help your changes be a success. Based on research with more than 900 companies from 59 countries, ADKAR is a simple and holistic way to manage change.

Why Projects Fail

Why Projects Fail
A Book

by Uladzislau Shauchenka

  • Publisher : Uladzislau Shauchenka
  • Release : 2013-09-12
  • Pages : 114
  • ISBN : 9780987724205
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"Why Projects Fail" offers an informative, entertaining read that is guaranteed to increase your understanding what went wrong with the projects that failed. Was the project well conceived? Was the budgeting adequate? Did it fail because of circumstances that were impossible to anticipate, or were there simply gaps in the planning process? Learn in this informative, interesting read that will help you make sure your next project succeed. "Why Projects Fail" presents a balanced analysis of its subject, alternating stories of major corporate and government projects that failed, along with a breakdown of what went wrong. The illuminating stories come from a variety of industries, with a shocking list of familiar companies and organizations. What makes this book unique is the author's delightfully straightforward account of the specific ways that caused problems. The book is full of charts, graphs and pictures. Project management best practices to increase your success rateSuggestions and recommendations for avoiding common pitfallsCase studies and analysis of failed projects across all industriesLots of numbers, stats and data presented in an easy to digest wayQuotes from outstanding project management and business gurus Do you ever wonder why the projects keep failing without obvious reason? Would you like to learn why projects fail and how to avoid failure? "Why Projects Fail" book explains why some projects fail while the other succeed. The book explores statistics, analyses, case studies and lessons learned from known project failures, along with facts and arguments. It goes over the main causes of failed projects, which can include going over budget, poor planning, lack of communication and other reasons. Do you want to improve chances of your project to succeed? Would like to avoid most common project management pitfalls and causes of project failure? Would you like to avoid devastating results of failed projects: negative career impact, loss of money, time and resources for the company? "Why Projects Fail" is going to give you something that will completely change the way you're running your projects. "Why Projects Fail" will tremendously improve your project management processes and procedures so your project won't fail but succeed. It's crucial to be aware of potential pitfalls before the project starts and recognize when things might be going wrong during project execution so you can get it back on track. "Why Projects Fail": What is covered? Failure rate and main elements of project's failureList of failed project incl. year, company name, cost, outcomeReasons for project's failureFive case studies including NASA, FBI and Government of CanadaProper project management: communication, stakeholder, risk, resourcesHow to prevent project's failure

Why Nations Fail

Why Nations Fail
The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty

by Daron Acemoğlu,James A. Robinson

  • Publisher : Crown Business
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 529
  • ISBN : 0307719219
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An award-winning professor of economics at MIT and a Harvard University political scientist and economist evaluate the reasons that some nations are poor while others succeed, outlining provocative perspectives that support theories about the importance of institutions.

Why Nonprofits Fail

Why Nonprofits Fail
Overcoming Founder's Syndrome, Fundphobia and Other Obstacles to Success

by Stephen R. Block

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2004-07-29
  • Pages : 208
  • ISBN : 9780787977030
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In Why Nonprofits Fail, author and nonprofit expert StephenBlock explains that many well-intentioned leaders hold on to viewsof their nonprofit organizations that perpetuate problems ratherthan help fix them. According to Block, the first step to successis to challenge one's own personal paradigms and ideas and be opento unique and alternative approaches to solving problems. Thismuch-needed book helps nonprofits get back on track and offersadvice about the seven most common stumbling blocks, including: Founder's syndrome Fundphobia Financial misfortune Recruitment disorientation Cultural depression in nonprofit organizations Self-serving political performance Role confusion between the board and executive director

How to Fail at Flirting

How to Fail at Flirting
A Book

by Denise Williams

  • Publisher : Penguin
  • Release : 2020-12-01
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN : 059310191X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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One daring to-do list and a crash course in flirtation turn a Type A overachiever’s world upside down. When her flailing department lands on the university's chopping block, Professor Naya Turner’s friends convince her to shed her frumpy cardigan for an evening on the town. For one night her focus will stray from her demanding job and she’ll tackle a new kind of to-do list. When she meets a charming stranger in town on business, he presents the perfect opportunity to check off the items on her list. Let the guy buy her a drink. Check. Try something new. Check. A no-strings-attached hookup. Check…almost. Jake makes her laugh and challenges Naya to rebuild her confidence, which was left toppled by her abusive ex-boyfriend. Soon she’s flirting with the chance at a more serious romantic relationship—except nothing can be that easy. The complicated strings around her dating Jake might destroy her career. Naya has two options. She can protect her professional reputation and return to her old life or she can flirt with the unknown and stay with the person who makes her feel like she's finally living again.

Failing in the Field

Failing in the Field
What We Can Learn When Field Research Goes Wrong

by Dean Karlan,Jacob Appel

  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Release : 2018-12-18
  • Pages : 176
  • ISBN : 0691183139
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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All across the social sciences, from development economics to political science, researchers are going into the field to collect data and learn about the world. Successful randomized controlled trials have brought about enormous gains, but less is learned when projects fail. In Failing in the Field, Dean Karlan and Jacob Appel examine the taboo subject of failure in field research so that researchers might avoid the same pitfalls in future work. Drawing on the experiences of top social scientists working in developing countries, this book describes five common categories of failures, reviews six case studies in detail, and concludes with reflections on best (and worst) practices for designing and running field projects, with an emphasis on randomized controlled trials. Failing in the Field is an invaluable “how-not-to” guide to conducting fieldwork and running randomized controlled trials in development settings.

Fail Better

Fail Better
Design Smart Mistakes and Succeed Sooner

by Anjali Sastry,Kara Penn

  • Publisher : Harvard Business Review Press
  • Release : 2014-10-14
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN : 1422193454
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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If you’re aiming to innovate, failure along the way is a given. But can you fail better? Whether you’re rolling out a new product from a city-view office or rolling up your sleeves to deliver a social service in the field, learning why and how to embrace failure can help you do better, faster. Smart leaders, entrepreneurs, and change agents design their innovation projects with a key idea in mind: ensure that every failure is maximally useful. In Fail Better, Anjali Sastry and Kara Penn show how to create the conditions, culture, and habits to systematically, ruthlessly, and quickly figure out what works, in three steps: 1. Launch every innovation project with the right groundwork 2. Build and refine ideas and products through iterative action 3. Identify and embed the learning Fail Better teaches you how to design your efforts to test the boundaries of your thinking, explore crucial interdependencies, and find the factors that can shift results from just acceptable to groundbreaking—or even world-changing. Practical instructions intertwined with compelling real-world examples show you how to: • Make predictions and map system relationships ahead of time so you can better assess results • Establish how much failure you can afford • Prioritize project activities for disconfirmation and iteration • Learn from every action step by collecting and examining the right data • Support efficient, productive habits to link action and reflection • Distill, share, and embed the lessons from every success and failure You may be a Fortune 500 manager, scrappy start-up innovator, social impact visionary, or simply leading your own small project. If you aim to break through without breaking the bank—or ruining your reputation—this book is for you.

How to Fail at Almost Everything and Still Win Big

How to Fail at Almost Everything and Still Win Big
Kind of the Story of My Life

by Scott Adams

  • Publisher : Penguin
  • Release : 2013-10-22
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 0698144627
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Blasting clichéd career advice, the contrarian pundit and creator of Dilbert recounts the humorous ups and downs of his career, revealing the outsized role of luck in our lives and how best to play the system. Scott Adams has likely failed at more things than anyone you’ve ever met or anyone you’ve even heard of. So how did he go from hapless office worker and serial failure to the creator of Dilbert, one of the world’s most famous syndicated comic strips, in just a few years? In How to Fail at Almost Everything and Still Win Big, Adams shares the game plan he’s followed since he was a teen: invite failure in, embrace it, then pick its pocket. No career guide can offer advice that works for everyone. As Adams explains, your best bet is to study the ways of others who made it big and try to glean some tricks and strategies that make sense for you. Adams pulls back the covers on his own unusual life and shares how he turned one failure after another—including his corporate career, his inventions, his investments, and his two restaurants—into something good and lasting. There’s a lot to learn from his personal story, and a lot of entertainment along the way. Adams discovered some unlikely truths that helped to propel him forward. For instance: • Goals are for losers. Systems are for winners. • “Passion” is bull. What you need is personal energy. • A combination of mediocre skills can make you surprisingly valuable. • You can manage your odds in a way that makes you look lucky to others. Adams hopes you can laugh at his failures while discovering some unique and helpful ideas on your own path to personal victory. As he writes: “This is a story of one person’s unlikely success within the context of scores of embarrassing failures. Was my eventual success primarily a result of talent, luck, hard work, or an accidental just-right balance of each? All I know for sure is that I pursued a conscious strategy of managing my opportunities in a way that would make it easier for luck to find me.”

Meltdown

Meltdown
Why Our Systems Fail and What We Can Do About It

by Chris Clearfield,András Tilcsik

  • Publisher : Penguin
  • Release : 2018-03-20
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN : 0735233330
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A groundbreaking take on how complexity causes failure in all kinds of modern systems—from social media to air travel—this practical and entertaining book reveals how we can prevent meltdowns in business and life. A crash on the Washington, D.C. metro system. An accidental overdose in a state-of-the-art hospital. An overcooked holiday meal. At first glance, these disasters seem to have little in common. But surprising new research shows that all these events—and the myriad failures that dominate headlines every day—share similar causes. By understanding what lies behind these failures, we can design better systems, make our teams more productive, and transform how we make decisions at work and at home. Weaving together cutting-edge social science with riveting stories that take us from the frontlines of the Volkswagen scandal to backstage at the Oscars, and from deep beneath the Gulf of Mexico to the top of Mount Everest, Chris Clearfield and András Tilcsik explain how the increasing complexity of our systems creates conditions ripe for failure and why our brains and teams can't keep up. They highlight the paradox of progress: Though modern systems have given us new capabilities, they've become vulnerable to surprising meltdowns—and even to corruption and misconduct. But Meltdown isn't just about failure; it's about solutions—whether you're managing a team or the chaos of your family's morning routine. It reveals why ugly designs make us safer, how a five-minute exercise can prevent billion-dollar catastrophes, why teams with fewer experts are better at managing risk, and why diversity is one of our best safeguards against failure. The result is an eye-opening, empowering, and entirely original book—one that will change the way you see our complex world and your own place in it.

Guaranteed to Fail

Guaranteed to Fail
Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the Debacle of Mortgage Finance

by Viral V. Acharya,Matthew Richardson,Stijn van Nieuwerburgh,Lawrence J. White

  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Release : 2011-03-14
  • Pages : 232
  • ISBN : 9781400838097
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The financial collapse of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in 2008 led to one of the most sweeping government interventions in private financial markets in history. The bailout has already cost American taxpayers close to $150 billion, and substantially more will be needed. The U.S. economy--and by extension, the global financial system--has a lot riding on Fannie and Freddie. They cannot fail, yet that is precisely what these mortgage giants are guaranteed to do. How can we limit the damage to our economy, and avoid making the same mistakes in the future? Guaranteed to Fail explains how poorly designed government guarantees for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac led to the debacle of mortgage finance in the United States, weighs different reform proposals, and provides sensible, practical recommendations. Despite repeated calls for tougher action, Washington has expanded the scope of its guarantees to Fannie and Freddie, fueling more and more housing and mortgages all across the economy--and putting all of us at risk. This book unravels the dizzyingly immense, highly interconnected businesses of Fannie and Freddie. It proposes a unique model of reform that emphasizes public-private partnership, one that can serve as a blueprint for better organizing and managing government-sponsored enterprises like Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. In doing so, Guaranteed to Fail strikes a cautionary note about excessive government intervention in markets.