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A New History of Vaccines for Infectious Diseases

A New History of Vaccines for Infectious Diseases
Immunization - Chance and Necessity

by Anthony Robert Rees

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2022-01-04
  • Pages : 514
  • ISBN : 0128127554
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A New History of Vaccines for Infectious Diseases: Immunization - Chance and Necessity covers the developments of vaccines and how they have obliterated many fatal diseases and infections over time. The book treads a neutral path but does not avoid discussion. As uncertainty in the outcome of vaccination can only be determined by experiment, the path to vaccine development has been scientifically complex because the immune system and the manner in which humans respond to infection is variable and complex. Finally, the book describes the risks and benefits of vaccines in a visibly objective manner. Gives an objective description of the science behind vaccine discovery Presents awareness and discussions on controversies, both past and present Provides historical context to the scientific aspects of immunization, including what worked, what didn't, and why Written by a scientist with no ‘vested interest’ in vaccine development Clears up many misunderstandings for today’s vaccination policies

Advances in Health and Disease

Advances in Health and Disease
A Book

by Lowell T. Duncan

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019-10
  • Pages : 231
  • ISBN : 9781536163803
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advances in Health and Disease. Volume 14 opens with a chapter on Zika Virus, a ribonucleic acid virus of the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus, Spondweni group, Zika species, isolated for the first time in 1947 from a primate in the Zika Forest in Uganda, a natural reserve near Entebbe. Next, the authors discuss multiple myeloma, which is characterized by the expansion of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. In about 95% of cases, the aberrant plasma cells produce a monoclonal immunoglobulin called monoclonal component that can be considered a marker of the disease. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is explored in the context of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, where it has been used as a treatment since 1979. This exposes a patient to 100% oxygen at a pressure level higher than 1 atmosphere absolute in a specially designed sealed chamber. This facilitates a delivery of increased partial pressure of oxygen to the tissues. The authors discuss off-label uses of ruxolitinib, particularly in the treatment of myelofibrosis and polycythemia vera, as drugs can sometimes have uses beyond the official approved indication. Following this, summaries of the current scientific knowledge and understanding of the clinical findings and health consequences of benzene exposure among children are presented. Children at various developmental stages have unique physical risk factors when exposed to toxic chemicals such as benzene due to their levels of mobility, oxygen consumption, hormonal production, and overall growth. Lastly, a hybrid quantitative structureâactivity relationship model was developed for the prediction of aqueous toxicity. The data concerning 92 substituted benzenes was separated into two disjoined subsets, respectively 74 elements for calculating and testing of the model, and 18 elements for its external validation.

Global Virology I - Identifying and Investigating Viral Diseases

Global Virology I - Identifying and Investigating Viral Diseases
A Book

by Paul Shapshak,John T. Sinnott,Charurut Somboonwit,Jens H. Kuhn

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-07-13
  • Pages : 840
  • ISBN : 1493924109
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides trajectories and illustrations of viruses that have catapulted into the global arena (linked to humans, animals, and vectors) due to human behaviors in recent years, as well as viruses that have already shown expansion among humans, animals, and vectors just a few decades ago. Topics in the current book include: vaccines environmental impact emerging virus transmission Filovirus (Ebola) hemorrhagic fevers flaviviruses Dengue evasion papillomaviruses Hepatitis C Nipah virus giant viruses hantaviruses bunyaviruses encephalitides West Nile virus Zika virus XMRV henipaviruses human respiratory syncytial virus influenza A virus several aspects of HIV-1

Neglected Tropical Diseases - North America

Neglected Tropical Diseases - North America
A Book

by Jill E. Weatherhead

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021-04-27
  • Pages : 260
  • ISBN : 3030633845
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume of the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) series covers the most prevalent NTDs in North America. This book discusses in detail pathology, diagnostics and control approaches of selected NTDs in the sub-tropical regions of the United States of America. There are disproportionate numbers of children and adults living in poverty within the United States that are at risk of infections caused by helminths, protozoa, viruses and bacteria which commonly lead to chronic, debilitating and stigmatizing diseases. Each chapter focuses on one specific disease or series of related diseases, and provides in-depth insights into the topic.

Zika and Other Neglected and Emerging Flaviviruses - E-Book

Zika and Other Neglected and Emerging Flaviviruses - E-Book
The Continuing Threat to Human Health

by Lisa A. Beltz

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2021-02-23
  • Pages : 212
  • ISBN : 0323825028
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Offering up-to-date coverage of familiar flaviviruses that are spreading into new regions or are causing increasingly severe disease, as well as viruses that are almost unknown in most developed nations, Zika and Other Neglected and Emerging Flaviviruses brings together information that allows for easy comparison of similarities and differences of this viral group in a single, convenient volume. Each chapter includes a brief Introduction, history, the diseases, the virus, the immune response, prevention or treatment, an extensive list of references, and a summary overview. The book concludes with a chapter tying together information about flaviviruses and other potential new microbial threats. Covers familiar flaviviruses that are spreading into new regions or are causing increasingly severe disease (such as Zika, dengue and West Nile viruses), as well as lesser-knowns viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus, Powassan virus, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, and Murray Valley encephalitis virus. Allows health-related personnel to search for potential treatments and protective responses by examining what measure did or did not work with other, related flaviviruses. Helps readers understand how to prevent or contain newly emerging viral threats—a particularly timely topic regarding the global spread of COVID-19 and the potential of tick-borne encephalitis to rapidly spread and cause severe illness, panic, and disruption of economies. Consolidates today’s available information on this timely topic into a single, convenient resource.

ZIKA VIRUS DISEASE

ZIKA VIRUS DISEASE
From origin to outbreak

by Adnan Quereshi

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2017-11-17
  • Pages : 180
  • ISBN : 0128125470
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Zika Virus provides an authoritative account of one of most fascinating viruses of the 21st century, covering all the main points. It includes coverage of clinical manifestations, such as fever and fatigue, but also delves into neurological manifestations like acute demyelinating neuropathy. In addition, the book discusses new evidence that suggests that Zika fever in pregnant women can cause abnormal brain development in fetuses by mother-to-child transmission. The Zika virus infection has become one of the first where women are actively discouraged from getting pregnant. Readers will find this book to be a comprehensive resource on the topic. Covers every important aspect of the Zika virus disease, from biological, to social and economic impacts Focuses on women’s health issues that have surfaced, including birth defects in newborns Written in an easy to comprehend manner, with technical terms clearly defined in chapters that highlight genetics

Immunological Methods in Microbiology

Immunological Methods in Microbiology
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-04-29
  • Pages : 410
  • ISBN : 0128208120
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Immunological Methods in Microbiology, Volume 47 in the Methods in Microbiology series, highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters on Immunological Techniques in the Clinical laboratory, Immunologic Diagnosis of HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Combining Antigen Detection and Serology for the Diagnosis of Selected Infectious Diseases, Immunologic Detection of Lyme Disease and Related Borrelioses, Immunodetection of Bacteria Causing Brucellosis, Immunological Diagnostic Techniques Used to Identify and Type Pasteurella, Immunological Tests for Diarrhea caused by Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Targeting Their Main Virulence Factors, and much more. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Methods in Microbiology series Includes the latest information on Immunological Methods in Microbiology

Infectious Diseases of the World

Infectious Diseases of the World
A Book

by Gideon Informatics, Inc.,Dr. Stephen Berger

  • Publisher : GIDEON Informatics Inc
  • Release : 2020-03-01
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 1498825435
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Infectious Diseases of the World is one in a series of GIDEON ebooks which explore all individual infectious diseases, drugs, vaccines, outbreaks, surveys and pathogens in every country of the world. Data are based on the GIDEON web application (www.gideononline.com) which relies on standard text books, peer-review journals, Health Ministry reports and ProMED, supplemented by an ongoing search of the medical literature. Chapters are arranged alphabetically, by disease name and include: 1. Descriptive epidemiology 2. Distribution map 3. Status of the disease in the World 4. References A chapter outlining the routine vaccination schedule of schedules of each individual country follows the diseases chapters. There are 361 generic infectious diseases in the world today. In addition to diseases which may be endemic to specific countries, all published data regarding cross-border and multinational incidents have been included.

Zika Virus and Diseases

Zika Virus and Diseases
From Molecular Biology to Epidemiology

by Suzane R. da Silva,Fan Cheng,Shou-Jiang Gao

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2018-02-26
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN : 1119408660
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Compiles the most current information on the Zika virus and its associated diseases This comprehensive book provides the most up-to-date information for students, medical students, and scientists on Zika virus and its associated diseases. It includes all the information related to the Zika virus since its discovery in 1947; its epidemic outbreak in 2007-2014; how the epidemiology changed in America in 2015-2016; its mode of transmission; how to prevent and treat it; and associated diseases. Zika Virus and Diseases: From Molecular Biology to Epidemiology offers complete and up-to-date coverage in 10 chapters. It presents information from papers that attempted to associate the virus with diseases in Africa until the first animal experiment; discusses its association with Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly; describes the basic mechanisms for Zika (ZIKV) replication, including important differences between Dengue (DENV), West-Nile virus (WNV), and ZIKV; explains the difference between the strains and discusses the pathogenesis of them; covers the papers that showed all the interferences that Zika can cause, and the pathways which can be modified; and more. The first book since 1947 to put together all the scientific information Compiles all the information received in the last year about Zika virus Clearly demonstrates the origin and discovery of the virus Zika Virus and Diseases: From Molecular Biology to Epidemiology will appeal to graduate students, medical students, basic researchers, clinicians in infectious disease, microbiology, and virology, as well as people in related disciplines interested in learning more about this topic.

Virus Taxonomy

Virus Taxonomy
VIIIth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses

by Claude M. Fauquet,M.A. Mayo,J. Maniloff,U. Desselberger,L.A. Ball

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2005-07-15
  • Pages : 1162
  • ISBN : 008057548X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Virus Taxonomy is a standard and comprehensive source for the classification of viruses, created by the International Committee of the Taxonomy of Viruses. The book includes eight taxonomic reports of the ICTV and provides comprehensive information on 3 taxonomic orders of viruses, 73 families, 9 subfamilies, 287 genera, and 1938 virus species. The book also features about 429 colored pictures and diagrams for more efficient learning. The text is divided into four parts, comprised of 16 chapters and presenting the following features: • Compiled data from numerous international experts about virus taxonomy and nomenclature • Organized information on over 6000 recognized viruses, illustrated with diagrams of genome organization and virus replication cycle • Data on the phylogenetic relationships among viruses of the same and different taxa • Discussion of the qualitative and quantitative relationships of virus sequences The book is a definitive reference for microbiologists, molecular biologists, research-level virologists, infectious disease specialists, and pharmaceutical researchers working on antiviral agents. Students and novices in taxonomy and nomenclature will also find this text useful. * The standard official ITCV reference for virus taxonomy and nomenclature, compiling data from 500 international experts * Covers over 6000 recognized viruses, organized by family with diagrams of genome organization and virus replication cycle * Provides data on the phylogenic relationships between viruses belonging to the same or different taxa * Now includes information about the qualitative and quantitative relationships between virus sequences

Zika Virus: What Have We Learnt Since the Start of the Recent Epidemic?

Zika Virus: What Have We Learnt Since the Start of the Recent Epidemic?
A Book

by Rubén Bueno-Marí, Juan-Carlos Saiz,Óscar D. Salomón, Luis C. Villamil-Jiménez,Jorg Heukelbach,Carlos H. Alencar,Paul Armstrong,Paulo Henrique Rosado-de-Castro,Pedro M. Pimentel-Coelho

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2018-04-12
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889454800
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The considerable number of viral infectious disease threats that have emerged since the beginning of the 21st century have shown the need to dispose global and coordinated responses to fight properly and efficiently against them. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (2003), avian influenza in humans (2005), A(H1N1) pandemic influenza (2009), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (2012 onward) and Ebola virus disease (2014-2015) are some of the most important examples. The latest emerging and devastating threat was Zika virus, an arbovirus that provoked more than 500,000 suspicious cases in the Americas in 2016 and notable processes of social and medical alarms due to the evidence of a causal link between Zika virus and several congenital injuries, like microcephaly, as well as due to its association with neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults (PAHO, 2017). In the framework of this global response and multistrategic approach, the purpose of this Research Topic is to provide updated information and novel researches about control strategies, encompassing virological, entomological and epidemiological data, in order to reach the triad of protagonists of transmission cycles (virus, mosquitoes and humans).

New Advances on Zika Virus Research

New Advances on Zika Virus Research
A Book

by Luis Martinez-Sobrido,Fernando Almazan Toral

  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release : 2019-04-02
  • Pages : 552
  • ISBN : 3038977640
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne member of the Flaviviridae family that historically has been associated with mild febrile illness. However, the recent outbreaks in Brazil in 2015 and its rapid spread throughout South and Central America and the Caribbean, together with its association with severe neurological disorders—including fetal microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults—have changed the historic perspective of ZIKV. Currently, ZIKV is considered an important public health concern that has the potential to affect millions of people worldwide. The significance of ZIKV in human health and the lack of approved vaccines and/or antiviral drugs to combat ZIKV infection have triggered a global effort to develop effective countermeasures to prevent and/or treat ZIKV infection. In this Special Issue of Viruses, we have assembled a collection of 32 research and review articles that cover the more recent advances on ZIKV molecular biology, replication and transmission, virus–host interactions, pathogenesis, epidemiology, vaccine development, antivirals, and viral diagnosis.

The Flaviviridae Viral Family: Properties and Genome Bank

The Flaviviridae Viral Family: Properties and Genome Bank
A Book

by Dimitrios Vlachakis

  • Publisher : Lulu.com
  • Release : 2008-08
  • Pages : 348
  • ISBN : 0615243274
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Flaviviridae family of viruses, description, properties and complete genome bank of all family members

Mosquitoes, Communities, and Public Health in Texas

Mosquitoes, Communities, and Public Health in Texas
A Book

by Mustapha Debboun,Martin Reyna Nava,Leopoldo Rueda

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2019-09-14
  • Pages : 420
  • ISBN : 0128145463
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Mosquitoes, Communities, and Public Health in Texas focuses on 87 known species of mosquitoes found throughout Texas. It includes information on the ecology, medical and public health importance, and biological diversity of each species. In addition, it provides detailed identification keys for both larval and adult stages of all mosquito genera and species known to occur in Texas, along a review of surveillance and control strategies. The expansion of invasive mosquitoes from other regions (including Mexico), together with climate change occurrences increase the likelihood for an increase in diseases, such as West Nile Virus, Yellow Fever, Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika. This unique work is the first unified reference and resource rich in mosquito information for medical entomologists, mosquito and vector control professionals, pest management professionals, biologists, environmentalists, wildlife professionals, government regulators, instructors of medical entomology and public health professionals who have disease or vector responsibilities, mosquito taxonomists, epidemiologists, entomology students, academia, pest control industry, and libraries, etc., with utility for medical, veterinary and health professionals. Brings into one volume the previously fragmented or unavailable information on the species of mosquitoes found in Texas and neighboring states of Mexico Provides a variety of audiences with key data on mosquito biology, distribution and how to identify each Includes a geographic distribution map, habitat associations, and medical importance on Zika, West Nile virus, Dengue and Chikungunya for each species

Ecological Relationships Between Arboviruses, Ectoparasites and Vertebrates in Ethiopia

Ecological Relationships Between Arboviruses, Ectoparasites and Vertebrates in Ethiopia
A Book

by George E. Watson,John S. Ash,Owen L. Wood,NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY WASHINGTON DC DEPT OF VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY.

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1978
  • Pages : 163
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Five topographically and ecologically diverse study sites that on the basis of human serological testing showed the highest antibody rates in Ethiopia were resurveyed in order to identify the natural vertebrate reservoirs and vectors of arboviruses infecting man. From fall 1969 until spring 1977, when personnel associated with NAMRU-5 were evacuated, over 80,000 animals were captured, 16,163 sera were obtained, 48,995 birds were banded for studies of population turnover and movements, and 4,946 vertebrate voucher specimens (3,195 birds, 971 bats, 372 other mammals and 408 reptiles and amphibians) and large numbers of ectoparasites (especially mosquitoes and ticks) were collected. Of 15,243 serological test results available (13,115 birds, 926 bats, 796 other mammals, 259 reptiles, and 147 amphibians), significant antibody levels were found in 2 species of Agama lizards, 45 species in 22 families of birds, 7 species of fruitbats, 1 insectivorous bat, 2 species of primates, the domestic cat, and 1 rodent; shrews warrant further study. Antibodies to the following viruses were involved: West Nile, Ntaya, Banzi (or Uganda S), Zika, Spondweni and Wesselsbron. Virus isolation, which had not been completed when the project ended, revealed 30 isolations from wild vertebrates including West Nile, dugbe, Arumowot, Abu Mina and Bunya viruses. Three strains remain unidentified and three others were abandoned in Ethiopia. Germiston virus was isolated from sentinel mice and Congo, Thogoto, dugbe and Jos viruses from ticks. (Author).

Oxford Textbook of Medicine: Infection

Oxford Textbook of Medicine: Infection
A Book

by David Warrell,Timothy M. Cox,John Firth,Estée Török

  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Release : 2012-10-11
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0191631736
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Oxford Textbook of Medicine: Infection is selected from the infection section of the renowned Oxford Textbook of Medicine, Fifth Edition. The book is an authoritative resource on infectious diseases. Comprehensive in its coverage and beautifully illustrated in full colour, it is an essential guide to the present-day management and prevention of a wide variety of infectious diseases. Covering diseases that are both familiar and tropical as well as those that continue to emerge, medical professionals will find it immensely valuable when diagnosing and preventing infection in their day-to-day practice. In 121 chapters, experts in infectious diseases from across the world review the essentials of current infectious disease practice and provide a wealth of practical advice that medical professionals can use in clinical situations. In addition, background information on epidemiology, pathogenesis and pathophysiology encourages a fuller understanding of conditions, and over 250 full colour images help with diagnosis when treating patients. A commanding discussion of infectious diseases from both Western and tropical countries, the Oxford Textbook of Medicine: Infection provides detailed information on a extensive range of viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths. Vast in scope and truly global in reach, chapters span a variety of topics including, pathogenic microorganisms and the host, the patient with suspected infection, travel and expedition medicine, and non-venomous arthropods. They reflect the globalization of disease that has resulted from the unprecedented increase in international travel and immigration, as well as natural/man-made disasters that demand massive international aid efforts. This up-to-date and essential reference tool, supports all medical professionals in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. It will be of particular value to clinicians working in, or seeing patients from the developing world, due to the wide range of pathogens discussed. It also supports those taking diploma courses in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, and HIV medicine. No infectious disease specialist or trainee should be without a copy of this definitive resource.

Principles of Molecular Virology (Standard Edition)

Principles of Molecular Virology (Standard Edition)
A Book

by Alan J. Cann

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2001-03-01
  • Pages : 339
  • ISBN : 0080886906
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Principles of Molecular Virology, Third Edition provides an essential introduction to modern virology in a clear and concise manner. It is a highly enjoyable and readable text with numerous illustrations that enhance the reader's understanding of important principles. This edition has been updated and revised with new figures and text. New to the Third Edition: Viruses and Apoptosis (Chapter 6) Bacteriophages and Human Disease (Chapter 7) Learning objectives for each chapter Pronunciation section in Glossary and abbreviations section (Appendix 1) Key events in the history of virology (Appendix 3) Addition of colour in text and figures to enhance understanding of key points Also: Self assessment questions at the end of each chapter Classification of Subcellular Infectious agents Approx. 20% new material and completely revised throughout Over 120 figures

Less-Common Flaviviruses: Global Status

Less-Common Flaviviruses: Global Status
2021 edition

by Gideon Informatics, Inc.,Dr. Stephen Berger

  • Publisher : GIDEON Informatics Inc
  • Release : 2021-03-01
  • Pages : 37
  • ISBN : 1498833020
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Less-Common Flaviviruses: Global Status is one in a series of GIDEON ebooks which explore all individual infectious diseases, drugs, vaccines, outbreaks, surveys and pathogens in every country of the world. Data are based on the GIDEON web application (www.gideononline.com) which relies on standard text books, peer-review journals, Health Ministry reports and ProMED, supplemented by an ongoing exhaustive search of the medical literature. The ebook includes: 1. Descriptive epidemiology 2. Clinical features 3. Distribution map 4. Images 5. Global status and status in every relevant country 6. References Less-Common Flaviviruses: Global Status includes separate sections on Louping ill, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Powassan, Spondweni, and Wesselsbron.

Chikungunya and Zika: Global Status

Chikungunya and Zika: Global Status
2021 edition

by Gideon Informatics, Inc.,Dr. Stephen Berger

  • Publisher : GIDEON Informatics Inc
  • Release : 2021-03-01
  • Pages : 258
  • ISBN : 1498832326
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Chikungunya and Zika: Global Status is one in a series of GIDEON ebooks which explore all individual infectious diseases, drugs, vaccines, outbreaks, surveys and pathogens in every country of the world. Data are based on the GIDEON web application (www.gideononline.com) which relies on standard text books, peer-review journals, Health Ministry reports and ProMED, supplemented by an ongoing exhaustive search of the medical literature. The ebook includes: 1. Descriptive epidemiology 2. Clinical features 3. Distribution map 4. Images 5. Global status and status in every relevant country 6. References Chikungunya and Zika: Global Status includes separate sections on Chikungunya, and Zika.

Encyclopedia of Arthropod-transmitted Infections of Man and Domesticated Animals

Encyclopedia of Arthropod-transmitted Infections of Man and Domesticated Animals
A Book

by R. W. Ashford

  • Publisher : CABI
  • Release : 2001-10-19
  • Pages : 608
  • ISBN : 1845933168
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This major reference work contains essential information on arthropod-borne infections affecting humans and domesticated animals. The encyclopedia is a key reference source for anyone working in medical and veterinary science, and related fields.Features of The Encyclopedia of Arthropod-transmitted Infections are:150 entries, describing arboviral, viral, bacterial and rickettsial, spirochaetal, protozoal and filarial infections, and the vectors that transmit themInformation on disease distribution, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, transmission cycles, vector life-cycles, and treatment and control measuresFigures, tables and photographs illustrate the textFollowing each entry is a selected bibliography, to aid further reading on the topicOver 80 different international authors, with expertise in medicine, veterinary science, parasitology, entomology, epidemiology, microbiology, and zoology have contributed to the encyclopedia